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THE      HISTORY      OF      FULK 

•V^fe,  Rt>   - 






Previous  Translations. — The  manuscript  in 
the  British  Museum  (MS.  Reg.  12,  c.  xii)  which 
contains  the  history  now  specially  translated  for  the 
"King's  Classics"  by  Mrs.  Kemp-Welch,  has  been 
several  times  published — in  1833  by  Sir  Thomas 
Duffus  Hardy,  in  1840  by  Francisque  Michel,  in 
1855  by  Thomas  Wright  for  the  Warton  Club,  in 
1858  by  L.  Moland  and  C.  d'Hericault  in  their 
Nouvellesfranfoises  en  prose  du  xitfs.,  and  in  1875  by 
Joseph  Stevenson,  at  the  end  of  Radulph  de  Cogge- 
shall's  Chronicon  Anglicanum  (Rolls  Series).  It  has  been 
translated  into  English  by  Thomas  Wright  and  Joseph 
Stevenson,  in  their  works  above  alluded  to  ;  it  has 
been  examined  critically  in  the  same  works,  as  well  as 
in  the  edition  of  Francisque  Michel,  and  in  the  article 
by  Paulin  Paris  in  Histoire  Litteraire  de  la  France  (vol. 
xxvii,  pp.  164-186);  it  has  been  noticed  and  epito- 
ix  * 

mized  by  Leland  and  by  Sir  Thomas  Duftus  Hardy  ; 
it  has  been  made  use  of  by  Thomas  Wright  in  his 
History  ofLudlow  ;  and  the  general  results  of  the  works 
of  which  it  has  formed  the  subject-matter  have  been 
well  summarized,  reviewed,  and  greatly  enriched  by 
Mr.  H.  L.  D.  Ward  in  his  Catalogue  of  Romances  in  the 
Department  of  MSS.  in  the  British  Museum  (vol.  I,  pp. 
Ambiguous  Character  of  the  Text. — Sir 

Thomas  Duftus  Hardy,  on  p.  41  of  vol.  3  of  his 
Descriptive  Catalogue  of  Materials  relating  to  the  history 
of  Great  Britain  and  Ireland  to  the  end  of  the  reign  of 
Henry  VII  (London,  1871),  has  already  recognized 
the  ambiguous  character  of  this  work.  "  It  seems," 
he  says,  "  to  be  partly  romance  and  partly  history." 
The  editors  who  came  after  him  did  no  more  than 
develop  this  remark  of  the  great  English  scholar,  and 
the  sum  and  substance  of  their  dissertations  is,  that 
Fulk  Fitx-Warine  is  an  historical  romance  containing 
much  romance  and  a  little  history. 

Its  Foundation  on  Fact. — Such  history  as  it 
contains  has  been  revealed  by  a  study  of  the  Public 
Rolls  which  concern  Fulk  and  the  other  Fitz-Warines, 
and  which  have  been  very  conveniently,  and  almost  in 
their  entirety,  collected  by  the  Rev.  W.  Eyton  in  his 

Antiquities  of  Shropshire.1  It  has  been  admirably  sum- 
marized by  Mr.  H.  L.  D.  Ward,  whose  own  words  we 
cannot  do  better  than  quote.  "The  romancer,"  he 
says,  "  has  entirely  forgotten  Fulk  I.,  who  died  before 
Michaelmas,  1171,  but  the  other  genealogical  matters 
seem  to  be  fairly  correct.  It  is  quite  certain  that 
Fulk  II.,  who  died  before  Michaelmas,  1198,  really 
married  Haweis  de  Dinan  ;  that  the  Fitz-Warins  had 
long-standing  claims  to  the  castle  of  Whittington  ; 
that  the  castle  was  delivered  over  to  the  Welsh  Prince 
Meuric  ;  that  Fulk  III.  consequently  rebelled  in 
I  20 1 ;  and  that  this  outlawry  was  revoked  on  the  1 5th 
November,  1203.  Among  the  fifty-two  names  of  his 
companions  attached  to  the  pardon  are  those  of 
William  Fitz-Fulk  and  Philip  and  Ivo  Fitzwarin, 
probably  all  three  of  them  brothers  of  Fulk  III.,  and 
also  those  of  Baldwin  de  Hodenet  and  William  Mal- 
veissin  ...  It  is  also  certain  that  Fulk  III.  married 
Matilda,  the  widow  of  Theobald  Walter  ...  On  the 
other  hand,  it  is  equally  certain  that  Theobald  Walter 
is  mentioned  as  still  alive  on  the  4-th  August,  1205, 
though  he  seems  to  have  died  before  October  8  of 
that  year  .  .  .  Fulk  rose  again  in  arms  in  the  Easter- 

1  For   the  genealogical     questions,   consult   the    genealogical 
tables  in  the  Rev.  W.  Eyton's  Antiquities  of  Shropshire. 

week  (April  1 9  to  25)  of  1 2 1 5,  and  joined  Robert  Fitz- 
Walter  ;  and  it  was  not  till  more  than  a  year  after  King 
John's  death  that  Fulk  made  his  peace  again,  and 
obtained  reseizen  of  his  lands,  namely  in  November 
1217.  He  continued  to  be  regarded  as  a  dangerous 
Baron  Marcher  ;  and  in  November  12 22,  the  Earl  of 
Chester  was  urged  to  inspect  the  fortifications  going 
on  at  Whittington  Castle,  and  to  see  that  they  were 
not  made  stronger  than  were  required  for  the  purpose 
of  resisting  the  Welsh  .  .  .  There  are  indications  that 
Fulk  IV.  acted  for  his  father  during  the  last  years  of 
his  life  ;  and  this  again  favours  an  assertion  made  by 
the  romancer,  namely,  that  he  was  blind  for  seven 
years.  He  seems  to  have  died  before  August  1260." 

Its  Element  of  Romance. — Such  are  the 

historic  data  on  which  the  author's  work  has  been 
built  up.  To  these  he  has  added  anachronisms,  matter 
purely  imaginative,  faithful  and  picturesque  descrip- 
tions of  places  in  Shropshire  with  which  he  was  very 
familiar,  and  legends  then  current  in  England,  as  well 
as  souvenirs  of  chansons  ae  geste  with  which  he  had 
become  acquainted  on  the  Continent.  At  the  very 
outset,  for  example,  he  borrows,  from  a  local  tradition, 
the  legend  of  Payn  Peverel,  "  le  fier  et  hardy  cosyn  le 
roi,"  who  happily  delivered  the  country  from  the 

giant  Geomagog,  who,  after  having  been  slain  by 
Corineus,  had  had  his  body  taken  possession  of  by  the 
Devil,  which  prevented  the  Britons  from  inhabiting 
Chastiel  Bran,  and  he  ends  by  recalling  the  memories 
associated  with  the  name  of  "  Blanche  Vile,  qui  en  le 
temps  le  roy  Arthur  la  Blanche  Lande  fust  nommee," 
and  by  displaying  the  knowledge  he  possessed  of  the 
legend  of  the  Holy  Grail,  and  of  the  Merlinesque 
prophecies.  Moreover,  he  seems  to  have  desired  to 
add  to  the  renown  of  his  hero  and  his  family  by 
connecting  them  with  the  great  Garin  le  Loherain, 
who  is  not  otherwise  referred  to  in  history,  and 
whose  very  existence  is  not  attested  save  in  the  chan- 
sons de  geste.  He  must  have  known  the  Renaud  de 
Montauban  group  above  all,  and  Mr.  Ward  has 
pointed  this  out  in  his  work  above  alluded  to,  al- 
though it  seems  to  me  that  he  has  not  sufficiently 
emphasized  the  fact.  He  confines  himself  to  saying 
that  "his  mind  often  reverted  to  the  deeds  of  the 
Quatre  fils  Aymon  ;  to  the  fatal  quarrel  between  Re- 
naud de  Montauban  and  Charlemagne's  nephew  over 
the  chess-board  ;  to  the  taunts  of  Roland  against  Ogier 
for  sparing  his  outlawed  cousins  ;  and  to  Richard's 
appearing  before  Charlemagne  in  the  arms  of  the 
Knight  sent  to  capture  him."  He  adds,  "  it  is  prob- 

ably  owing  to  the  same  chanson  that  Fulk,  like  Renaud, 
releases  his  sovereign  when  he  has  him  completely  at 
his  mercy." 
Its  Relation  to  Renaud  de  Montauban.— 

These  observations  are  just,  but  they  do  not  go  far 
enough.  It  seems  possible  to  go  much  further,  and 
that  one  must  admit  that  the  text  itself  of  Renaud 
de  Montauban  was  quite  familiar  to  our  author.  He 
certainly  knew  of  the  use  of  the  chess-board  made  by 
Landri  and  Chariot,  But  is  there  not  a  singular 
resemblance  between  the  scene  in  which  Renaud  de 
Montauban,  struck  by  the  wrathful  Bertolais,  goes  to 
make  complaint  to  Charlemagne,  and  that  in  which 
Prince  John,  struck  by  Fulk,  goes  to  make  complaint 
to  his  father,  King  Henry  II.  ?  And  does  not  the 
reply  of  Henry  II.  to  his  son  recall  in  a  forcible 
manner,  and  in  a  way  to  suggest  a  direct  imitation, 
or  a  remarkably  exact  reminiscence,  Charlemagne's 
reply  to  Renaud  ?  "  Tes  tey,  mauvais,"  says  our 

"  Comme  Karles  1'oit,  si  en  fut  mult  irie  ; 
malvais  garfont  coart  avoit  Renaud  hucie." 

In  the  same  way,  when  Fulk  arrives  at  Alberbury, 
he  relates  to  his  mother,  Dame  Hawyse,  the  wander- 
ings of  himself  and  his  brothers,  and  Dame  Hawyse 

gives  him  "grant  aveyr."  When  Renaud,  Alnrd, 
Guichard,  and  Richard  come  to  Dordon  to  meet  their 
mother,  an  exactly  similar  thing  happens. 

"  L'afaire  li  conterent  comment  il  ont  ouvre," 
and  she  tells  them, 

"  Portez  de  mon  avoir  a  mult  grand e  piente." 

Again,  Charlemagne's  anger  and  his  imprecations 
against  the  Fils  Aymon,  his  manner  of  calling  to  mind 
the  fact  that  he  has  vanquished  thirty  kings,  all 
striving  with  each  other  who  could  best  serve  him, 
and  that  none  of  all  the  lords  whom  he  had  subdued 
dared  fight  against  him — 

"  Fors  rois  Yus  de  Gascoigne  ki  tos  est  asotis, 
Qui  centre  moi  recete  mes  mortes  enemis 
Les  .iiii.  fix  Aymon  que  tout  jor  ai  hai's," 

reminds  us  at  once  of  the  fine  passage  in  Fulk  Fifz- 
Warlr.e,  where  John  Lackland  exclaims,  "  Hay, 
Seinte  Marie,  je  su  roy,  Engleterre  guye,  due  su 
d'Angoye,  et  de  Normaundye  et  tote  Yrlande  est  en 
ma  segnorie  ;  e  jc  ne  pus  trover  ne  aver  en  tot  moun 
poer,  pur  quanqe  je  pus  doner,  nul  se  me  velt  venger 
de  la  damage  e  hontage  que  Fouke  m'ad  fet.  Mes  je 
nc  lerroy  qe  je  ne  me  venjeroy  de  le  prince." 

These  passages  certainly  prove  that  the  author  of 
Fit  Ik  Fitx-Warlne   must    have    often   heard,  or   read 

over  and  over  again,  the  adventures  of  the  Quatre 
Fils  Aymon.  He  was,  moreover,  a  connoisseur  ot 
the  current  literature,  as  we  are  led  to  imagine  from 
the  first  sentence  of  our  simple  story,  rendered  into 
prose  from  the  opening  so  frequent  in  the  chansons  de 
gestes — 

"  Ce  fu  el  mois  de  Mai,  a  1'entree   d'este, 
Que  foillissent  cil  bos  et  verdoient  li  pre." 

or  in  the  ordinary  songs — • 

"  Quant  florist  la  pree, 
Que  li  douz  tenz  doit  venir, 
Qu'oiseaux  par  ramee 
Font  escouter  lor  doz  cris, 
Adonc  chant,  &c." 

And  there  is  nothing  surprising  in  the  fact  that  he 
should  have  called  to  remembrance  the  Quatre  Fils 
Aymon  when  he  had  to  relate  the  adventures  of 
Warine's  five  sons. 

If  to  this  is  added  the  fact  that  remarkable  re- 
semblances to  passages  in  Huon  de  Bordeaux,  and 
other  chansons  de  geste,  as  well  as  commonplaces 
proper  to  these  poems,  are  also  to  be  found,  enough 
will  have  been  said  to  show  conclusively  that  the 
mind  of  the  Trouvere  was  stored  with  romantic 
ideas  dear  to  the  Middle  Ages. 

Fulk  and  Robin  Hood. — The  adventures  of 
Fulk  Fitz-Warine  are  worthy  to  rank  with  those  of 
Eustace  the  Monk,  Hereward,  Robert  Bruce,  and 
Robin  Hood.  It  is  especially  with  those  of  the  last- 
named  that  they  present  striking  resemblances.  Is  it 
a  mere  chance,  for  instance,  that  the  oldest  ballad  of 
the  cycle  of  Robin  Hood  which  has  come  down  to 
us,  presents  so  great  an  analogy  with  the  debut  of  Fulk 
Fitz-Warine  ?  And  if  one  of  the  oldest  ballads  con- 
tains the  lines — 

"  It  befelle  be  god  Edwards  days 
For  soth  so  the  romans  says, 
Harkying,  I  will  you  telle, 
The  Kyng  to  Scherwod  gan  wend 
For  to  solas  hyrn  that  stond 
The  grete  herte  for  to  hunte 
In  frythys  and  felle," 

is  it  correct  to  say  with  Thomas  Wright  (Essays,  II, 
172),  that  "the  expression,  'so  the  romans  says,' 
seems  to  have  become  a  mere  hackneyed  phrase,  used 
without  any  meaning  "  ?  Is  it  by  mere  chance,  again, 
that,  in  the  lines  of  Piers  Plowman — 

"  I  can  nou^te  perfidy  my  pater-noster  as  the  prest  it  syngeth  : 
.  But  I  can  rymes  of  Robyn  Hood  and  Randolf  Erie  of  Chester," 

mention  is  made  of  one  who,  under  the  name  of 

Randolfe,  Count  of  Chester,  plays  an  important, 
although  secondary,  part  in  the  romance  of  Fulk 
Fitz-Warine  ?  And  finally,  is  it  merely  an  accidental 
circumstance  that  the  two  renowned  outlaws  act  in  so 
similar  a  manner  in  despoiling  those  they  meet  con- 
veying merchandise  to  the  King  of  England,  or  to 
the  Sheriff  of  Nottingham  ?  There  is  not,  at  the 
present  time,  any  possible  answer  to  all  the  questions 
we  ask  ourselves  respecting  the  relations  that  may 
have  existed  between  the  original  type  of  Robin 
Hood  and  that  of  Fulk  Fitz-Warine.  But  it  is  at  any 
rate  useful  to  ask  them,  and  the  mere  fact  that  we  can 
do  this,  leads  us  to  imagine  that  there  was  a  more 
profound  intermingling  of  the  French  literature  de- 
veloped in  England,  and  the  popular  English  literature, 
than  is  generally  recognized. 

Style  and  Dialect. — The  Manuscript  is  written 
in  rather  poor  French.  All  the  faults  committed  by 
Anglo-Norman  writers  are  to  be  found  in  it,  and  the 
native  dialect  of  the  author  or  authors  is  not  easily- 
discoverable.  But  the  narration  is  often  full  of 
picturesqueness  and  vivacity.  The  taking  of  the 
Castle  of  Dynan  by  Sir  Ernalt,  the  scene  of  carnage 
which  ensued,  the  slaying  of  the  conqueror  by  his- 
mistress,  the  lamentations  of  the  murderess,  and  her 

terrible  suicide,  all  constitute  a  series  of  scenes  of 
poignant  interest.  The  descriptions  are  tempered, 
the  accessory  anecdotes  are  treated  in  a  tone  of 
moderation,  and  the  terseness  and  clearness  of  the 
dialogues  are  remarkable.  Examples  of  these  qualities 
will  be  found  to  some  extent  throughout,  but  above 
all  in  the  conversation  of  Payn  with  Geomagog,  in  the 
lamentations  of  Marion  de  la  Bruere,  in  the  scene  of 
the  chess-board,  in  Fulk's  interview  with  John  Lack- 
land, in  the  scene  between  Fulk  and  the  merchants, 
in  his  interview  with  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury, 
in  the  daring  behaviour  of  the  minstrel  John  de 
Rampaigne,  in  Fulk's  adventures  in  France  when  he 
is  welcomed  by  King  Philip,  in  his  conversation  with 
Mador,  in  the  charming  episode  of  the  daughter  of 
Aunflorreis  of  Orkney,  in  the  scene  of  the  charcoal- 
burner,  in  Fulk's  adventures  with  Messobryns's  sister, 
and  in  his  repentance. 

From  the  whole  there  emanates  a  poetic  perfume 
which  alone  would  prove  that  we  have  to  do  with  a 
poem  rendered  into  prose,  even  if  we  had  not  got,  in 
the  text  itself,  numerous  pages  where  whole  passages 
in  verse  are  met  with.  In  his  preface,  Thomas  Wright 
has  said  what  is  essential  on  this  subject.  We  will 
content  ourselves  with  referring  the  reader  to  his 

preface,  and  also  to  the  notice  of  H.  L.  D.  Ward,  for 
all  that  concerns  the  relation  of  Fulk  Fitz-Warine 
with  the  works  of  Anthony  Munday  and  of  Henry 

Among  the  works  which  have  derived,  more  or 
less  immediately,  their  inspiration  from  the  history  of 
Fulk  Fitz-Warine,  we  think  it  is  of  interest  to  note 
Professor  Skeat's  Ludhw  Castle,  in  which  the  author 
so  skilfully  versified  the  love-story  of  Havise,  evidently 
under  the  influence  of  Sir  Walter  Scott. 

Louis   BRANDIN. 

IN  the  time  of  April  and  May,  when  once  again 
the  meadows  and  the  pastures  become  green,  and 
all  living  things  renew  their  virtue  and  beauty  and 
strength,  and  the  hills  and  the  valleys  resound  with 
the  sweet  warble  of  the  birds,  and,  by  reason  of  the 
beauty  of  the  weather  and  of  the  season,  all  hearts 
are  uplifted  and  made  glad,  then  is  it  meet  that  we 
should  call  to  remembrance  the  adventures  and  the 
brave  deeds  of  our  ancestors,  who  made  endeavour 
to  seek  honour  in  loyalty,  and  to  relate  such  things 
as  should  be  profitable  to  many. 

Good  sirs,  of  old  have  you  heard  tell  how  that 
William  the  Bastard,  the  Duke  of  Normandy,  came, 
with  a  great  host,  and  folk  without  number,  into 
England,  and  there  conquered  by  force  all  the  land, 
and  slew  the  King  Harold,  and  caused  himself  to  be 
crowned  at  London,  and  established  peace  and  laws 
as  it  pleased  him,  and  bestowed  lands  on  divers  folk 
who  came  with  him.  At  that  time  Owen  Gwynned 
was  Prince  of  Wales,  and  he  was  a  valiant  and  dexterous 

warrior,  and  the  King  feared  him  more  than  all  beside. 
This  Owen  had  laid  waste  all  the  march,  and  all  was 
void  from  Chester  unto  Mount  Gilbert.  And  the 
King  equipped  himself  very  richly,  and  with  a  great 
host  he  came  into  the  county  of  Shrewsbury,  and 
found  all  the  towns  from  Chester  unto  Shrewsbury 
burnt,  for  the  Prince  claimed  all  the  march  for  his 
own,  and  as  pertaining  to  Powis. 

And  the  Prince  withdrew,  for  he  dared  not  await 
the  King.  And  the  King  was  very  wise,  and  he 
bethought  him  that  he  would  give  the  lands  of  the 
march  to  the  most  valiant  knights  of  all  his  host,  to 
the  end  that  the  march  might  be  defended  against 
the  Prince,  to  their  own  profit,  and  to  the  honour  of 
their  lord,  the  King.  And  the  King  called  unto  him 
Roger  de  Belehealme,  and  gave  unto  him  all  the 
county  of  Shrewsbury  free  of  all  service,  and  it  was 
called  a  County  Palatine.  And  Roger  founded  without 
the  town  of  Shrewsbury  an  abbey  of  St.  Peter,  and  he 
endowed  it  right  richly.  And  he  held  the  county  all 
his  life.  He  began  a  castle  at  Brugge,  and  another  he 
began  at  Dynan,  but  never  did  he  finish  them. 

And  after  that  Roger  was  dead,  Robert,  his  son, 
had  all  the  county  of  Shrewsbury,  and  Ernald,  his 
younger  son,  had  Pembroke.  They  were  men  very 

wanton  and  very  base,  and  they  did  great  wrong  to 
their  lord,  King  Henry,  the  son  of  William  the  Bastard, 
and  brother  to  King  William  Rufus,  in  that  they 
finished  the  castle  of  Brugge  despite  the  behest  of 
King  Henry,  for  the  which  King  Henry  dispossessed 
them,  and  banished  them  for  the  rest  of  their  days, 
and  gave  their  lands  to  his  knights.  And  the  castle 
of  Dynan,  and  all  the  country  around  on  the  borders 
of  the  river  of  Corve,  with  all  its  fiefs,  he  gave  to 
Sir  Joce,  his  knight.  And  from  that  time  forth  he 
took  unto  himself  the  surname  of  Dynan,  and  was 
called  of  all  Joce  de  Dynan.  And  this  Joce  finished 
the  castle  the  which  Roger  de  Belehealme  in  his  time 
had  begun,  and  he  was  a  strong  and  valiant  knight. 
And  longwhile  was  the  town  called  Dynan  which  is 
now  called  Ludlow.  And  this  Joce  caused  to  be 
built,  below  the  town  of  Dynan,  a  bridge  of  stone 
and  lime,  extending  beyond  the  river  of  Teme  to  the 
highway  which  passes  over  the  march  from  Chester 
to  Bristol.  And  Joce  built  his  castle  of  Dynan  with 
three  walls,  and  encompassed  it  about  with  two 
fosses,  one  within  and  one  without. 

Now  when  King  William  the  Bastard  came  to  the 
hills  and  valleys  of  Wales,  he  saw  a  very  large  town, 
aforetime  enclosed  with  high  walls,  all  burnt  and  laid 

waste.  And  below  the  town,  in  a  plain,  he  caused 
his  tents  to  be  set  up,  and  there  would  he  remain, 
said  he,  that  night.  Then  inquired  the  King  of  a 
Briton  the  name  of  the  town,  and  how  it  came  to  be 
thus  laid  waste.  "  Sire,"  said  the  Briton,  "  this  will 
I  tell  you.  The  castle  was  aforetime  called  Castle 
Bran,  but  now  it  is  called  the  Old  March.  In  time 
past  there  came  into  this  country  one  Brutus,  a  very 
valiant  knight,  and  Corineus,  from  whom  Cornwall 
has  still  its  name,  and  many  others  derived  from  the 
lineage  of  Troy.  And  none  inhabited  these  parts 
save  some  very  ill-favoured  folk,  great  giants,  whose 
king  was  called  Geomagog.  And  these  heard  of  the 
coming  of  Brutus,  and  they  set  them  forth  to  en- 
counter him.  And  at  last  all  the  giants  were  slain, 
save  only  Geomagog,  who  was  of  marvellous  size. 
And  Corineus,  the  valiant,  said  that  willingly  would 
he  do  combat  with  Geomagog,  to  essay  the  strength 
of  Geomagog.  And  at  the  first  onset,  so  tightly 
did  the  giant  embrace  Corineus,  that  he  brake  three 
of  his  ribs.  And  Corineus  was  filled  with  anger,  anc 
struck  Geomagog  with  his  foot,  so  that  he  fell  from 
a  great  rock  into  the  sea,  and  there  was  Geomagog 
drowned.  And  then  an  evil  spirit  entered  into  the 
body  of  Geomagog,  and  came  into  these  parts,  anc 

long  did  he  defend  the  country,  so  that  never  Briton 
dared  dwell  there.  And  longwhile  after,  King  Bran, 
the  son  of  Donwal,  caused  the  city  to  be  rebuilt,  and 
he  made  good  the  walls,  and  strengthened  the  large 
fosses,  and  he  built  Burgh  and  Great  March.  And 
the  Evil  Spirit  came  by  night,  and  despoiled  all  that 
was  therein,  and  since  then  has  no  one  ever  dwelt 

Greatly  did  the  King  marvel  at  this.  And  Payn 
Peverel,  a  proud  and  brave  knight,  cousin  to  the  King, 
heard  all,  and  said  that  that  night  he  would  essay  the 
marvel.  And  Payn  Peverel  armed  himself  very  richly, 
and  took  his  shield  of  shining  gold,  with  a  cross  in- 
dented azure,  and  fifteen  knights  and  other  men-at- 
arms,  and  he  went  into  the  chiefest  palace,  and  there 
lodged  him.  And  when  that  the  night  was  come,  the 
weather  became  so  foul  and  black  and  dark,  and  there 
arose  such  a  tempest  of  lightning  and  thunder,  that 
so  affrighted  were  all  those  who  were  there,  that 
they  could  stir  neither  foot  nor  hand,  but  lay  upon 
the  ground  as  though  dead.  And  the  proud  Payn 
was  sore  afraid,  but  he  put  his  trust  in  the  God  whose 
sign  of  the  cross  he  bore,  and  he  perceived  that  he 
could  have  no  help  save  from  God  alone.  And  he  lay 
upon  the  ground,  and  with  right  true  devotion  he 

prayed  God  and  his  Mother  Mary  that  they  would 
defend  him  that  night  from  the  power  of  the  Evil  One. 
And  scarce  was  his  prayer  ended,  than  there  came  the 
Devil  in  the  semblance  of  Geomagog,  and  he  carried 
in  his  hand  a  large  club,  and  from  his  mouth  he  hurled 
forth  fire  and  smoke,  by  the  which  the  town  was  all 
illumined.  But  Payn  had  great  trust  in  God,  and 
signed  himself  with  the  cross,  and  valiantly  did  he 
assail  the  Devil.  And  the  Devil  uplifted  his  club, 
and  would  have  struck  Payn,  but  that  he  avoided  the 
blow.  And  by  reason  of  the  cross,  the  Devil  was 
sore  dismayed,  and  his  strength  failed  him,  for  he 
could  not  come  nigh  the  cross.  And  Payn  pursued 
him  until  he  smote  him  with  his  sword,  so  that  he 
began  to  cry  out,  and  fell  all  flat  upon  the  ground, 
and  yielded  himself  vanquished,  "  Sir  Knight,"  said 
he,  "  you  have  laid  me  low  not  by  reason  of  your  own 
strength,  but  by  virtue  of  the  cross  which  you  bear." 
"  Tell  me,  you  ill-favoured  creature,"  said  Payn,  "  who 
you  are,  and  what  is  your  concern  in  this  town.  I 
conjure  you  in  the  name  of  God  and  of  the  Holy 
Cross."  Then  began  the  Evil  One  to  relate,  word 
for  word,  that  which  the  Briton  had  erewhile  re- 
counted, and  he  told  how  that  as  soon  as  Geomagog 
was  dead,  forthwith  he  rendered  his  soul  to  Beelzebub, 

their  Prince,  who  entered  into  the  body  of  Geomagog, 
and  came  in  his  form  into  these  parts  to  guard  tKe 
great  treasure  which  Geomagog  had  gathered  together 
and  put  into  a  house  which  he  had  made  beneath  the 
ground  in  that  town.  And  Payn  asked  of  him  what 
sort  of  creature  he  was,  and  he  made  answer  that 
aforetime  he  was  an  angel,  but  that  now,  for  his 
offence,  he  was  become  an  evil  spirit.  "  And  what 
treasure,"  said  Payn,  "  had  Geomagog  ?  "  "  Oxen, 
and  cows,  and  swans,  and  peacocks,  and  horses,  and  all 
other  beasts,  wrought  in  fine  gold.  And  he  had  a 
golden  bull,  the  which,  through  my  aid,  was  his  seer, 
and  in  it  was  all  his  trust,  and  it  told  unto  him  the 
adventures  that  were  to  befall.  And  twice  in  each 
year  did  the  giants  do  homage  to  their  god,  the 
which  was  the  golden  bull,  by  the  which  so  much  gold 
was  gathered  together,  that  it  is  a  marvel.  And  after- 
ward it  came  to  pass  that  all  this  land  was  called  the 
White  Plain,  and  I  and  my  comrades  set  the  plain  about 
with  a  high  wall  and  a  deep  fosse,  so  that  there  was 
no  way  in  save  only  by  this  town,  the  which  was  full 
of  evil  spirits.  And  in  the  plain  we  held  jousts  and 
tournaments,  and  many  came  for  to  see  the  marvels, 
but  never  an  one  escaped.  And  at  last  there  came  a 
disciple  of  Jesus,  who  was  called  Augustine,  and  by 

reason  of  his  preaching  he  took  many  from  us,  and 
he  baptized  folk,  and  built  a  chapel  in  his  name ; 
from  the  which  sore  trouble  came  to  us."  "  Now 
tell  me,"  said  Payn,  "  where  is  the  treasure  of  which 
you  have  spoken."  "  Knight,"  answered  he,  "speak  no 
more  of  that,  for  it  is  destined  for  others.  But  you 
will  be  lord  of  all  this  fief,  and  those  who  shall  come 
after  you  shall  hold  it  with  much  strife  and  war. 
And  from  thy  default  will  issue  the  wolf  who  will 
do  wonders,  who  will  have  sharp  teeth,  and  will  be 
known  of  all,  and  will  be  so  strong  and  fierce  that 
he  will  drive  the  wild  boar  from  out  the  White 
Plain,  such  great  power  will  he  have.  The  leopard 
will  follow  the  wolf  and  will  menace  him  at  arm's 
length.  The  wolf  will  leave  woods  and  hills,  in  the 
water  will  he  dwell  with  the  fishes,  and  he  will  pass 
over  the  sea,  and  will  environ  this  whole  island.  At 
length  will  he  subdue  the  leopard  by  his  cunning  and 
his  artifice.  Then  will  he  come  into  this  plain,  and 
will  make  his  stronghold  in  the  water." 

And  when  the  Spirit  had  thus  spoken,  he  came  out 
of  the  body,  and  there  arose  such  a  stench,  that  Payn 
thought  to  die  of  it.  And  when  the  Spirit  was  de- 
parted, the  night  cleared,  and  the  weather  became 
fair,  and  the  knights  and  the  others  who  had  been 

affrighted,  rallied  themselves,  and  much  marvelled 
they  at  the  adventure  which  had  chanced  to  them. 
And  on  the  morrow  the  matter  was  shown  to  the  King 
and  to  all  the  host.  And  the  King  caused  the  body  of 
Geomagog  to  be  brought,  and  to  be  cast  into  a  deep 
pit  without  the  town,  but  he  caused  the  club  to  be 
preserved,  and  longwhile  he  showed  it  unto  the 
people  because  of  the  marvel  of  its  size. 

And  the  King  departed  thence,  and  came  into  a 
country  hard  by  the  White  Plain,  the  which  aforetime 
belonged  to  a  Briton,  Meredus,  the  son  of  Beledyns. 
And  on  the  border  of  it  was  a  small  castle  called 
Tree  of  Oswald,  but  now  is  it  called  Osewaldestre. 
And  the  King  summoned  a  knight,  Alan,  the  son  of 
Flaeu,  and  gave  unto  him  the  small  castle  with  its 
fiefs.  And  from  this  Alan  come  all  the  great  lords 
of  England  who  have  for  surname  Fitz  Alan.  And 
later,  this  Alan  caused  the  castle  to  be  much 

And  the  King  passed  the  river  of  Severn,  and  saw 
that  the  country  around  was  good  and  fair.  And  he 
called  unto  him  a  knight  who  was  born  in  Lorraine, 
in  the  city  of  Metz,  and  who  was  much  renowned 
for  strength,  for  comeliness,  and  for  courtesy.  And 
his  banner  was  of  red  samite,  with  two  golden  pea- 

cocks.  And  he  gave  to  him  Alberbury,  with  all  its 
fiefs.  And  in  such  manner  did  the  King  grant  unto 
his  best  and  most  trusty  knights  all  the  lands,  chases, 
and  fees,  from  Chester  even  unto  Bristol. 

And  the  King  sent  for  Payn  Peverel,  and  made 
grant  to  him  of  the  White  Plain,  with  its  forests  and 
wastes  and  chases,  and  all  the  land.  And  there  was 
on  it  a  little  hill  environed  by  marsh  and  water.  And 
there  Payn  built  a  fair  and  strong  tower,  and  the  little 
hill  was  called  Waybury,  and  there  runs  by  it  a  river, 
the  which  takes  its  name  from  Payn  Peverel,  and  it  is 
called  Peverel,  but  to  fore  it  was  called  Pevereynes. 
And  after  that  he  had  thus  set  the  country  in  order, 
the  King  went  back  to  London,  and  from  London  to 
Normandy,  and  there  he  died.  Then  there  reigned 
in  England  William  Rufus,  his  son,  and  after  him, 
Henry,  his  younger  brother,  who  afterward  detained 
Robert  Courthose,  his  eldest  brother,  in  prison,  his 
whole  life  long,  the  reason  of  which  will  not  be  here 
set  out. 

And  then  it  happed  that  Payn  Peverel  died  in  his 
castle  on  the  Peak.  And  William  Peverel,  the  son  of 
his  sister,  became  possessed  of  all  the  heritage  of  Payn. 
And  after,  this  William  conquered  with  his  sword  all 
the  land  of  Morlas  even  to  the  waters  of  Dee,  and 

Ellesmere,  and  Maelor,  and  Nauhendon.  And  this 
William  built  a  tower  in  the  White  Plain,  and  he 
called  it  White-Tower,  the  which  is  in  English  Whit- 
tington.  And  in  Ellesmere  he  built  another  tower, 
and  yet  another  on  the  waters  of  Keyroc.  And 
William  had  two  fair  nieces,  the  elder  Eleyne,  and 
the  younger  Melette,  and  he  gave  Eleyne  to  the  son 
of  Alan  to  wife,  and  bestowed  on  her,  on  her  marriage, 
all  the  land  of  Morlas  as  far  as  Keyroc.  But  Melette 
was  the  fairer,  and  for  her  beauty  she  was  the  more 
desired,  but  none  found  favour  with  her.  And 
William  reasoned  with  her,  and  besought  of  her  that 
she  would  discover  unto  him  if  there  was  in  the  world 
any  knight  whom  she  would  take  for  lord,  and  if  there 
was  not  such  an  one,  then  would  he  aid  her  all  he 
could.  "  Certes,  Sire,"  said  she,  "  no  knight  is  there 
in  all  the  world  that  I  would  take  for  the  sake  of 
riches  and  the  honour  of  lands,  but  if  ever  I  take  such 
an  one,  he  shall  be  handsome,  and  courteous,  and 
accomplished,  and  the  most  valiant  of  his  order  in 
all  Christendom.  Of  riches  I  make  no  account,  for 
truly  can  I  say  that  he  is  rich  who  has  that  which  his 
heart  desires."  And  William,  when  he  heard  this, 
smiled,  and  said,  "  Sweet  niece,  well  have  you  spoken, 
and  I  will  aid  you  as  much  as  in  me  lies  to  find  such 

a  lord.  And  for  portion  I  will  give  you  White- 
Tower,  and  all  that  belongs  to  it,  with  all  its  fiefs, 
for  so  much  the  more  will  the  woman  who  has  land 
in  fee  be  sought  after."  Then  William  made  a 
proclamation  in  many  a  land,  and  in  many  a  city, 
that  all  the  knights  of  worth  who  would  tourney  for 
love,  should  come  at  the  feast  of  St.  Michael  to  the 
castle  of  Peverel,  which  is  on  the  Peak,  and  the 
knight  who  should  do  best,  and  should  win  the  tourna- 
ment, that  one  should  have  the  love  of  Melette  of 
the  White-Tower,  and  should  be  lord  and  seigneur 
of  White  Town  and  of  all  its  fiefs.  And  forthwith 
was  this  proclamation  published  throughout  many 
lands.  And  Guarin  de  Metz,  the  valiant,  had  neither 
wife  nor  child,  and  he  made  known  to  John,  the  Duke 
of  Brittany,  all  the  contents  of  this  proclamation, 
and  prayed  of  him  aid  and  succour  in  his  need.  And 
the  Duke  was  very  valiant.  He  had  ten  sons  who  were 
knights,  the  fairest  and  the  most  valiant  of  body  in 
all  Brittany — Roger,  the  eldest,  and  Howel,  and  Audoin, 
and  Urien,  and  Theobald,  and  Bertram,  and  Amis, 
and  Guichard,  and  Gerard,  and  Guy.  And  the  Duke 
sent  these  ten  sons,  and  an  hundred  knights  with  them, 
well  mounted,  and  furnished  with  rich  apparel,  to 
his  cousin  Guarin  de  Metz,  and  he  received  them  with 

great  honour.  And  Eneas,  the  son  of  the  King  of 
Scotland,  came  with  the  Count  of  Murray ;  and  also 
the  Bruces,  the  Dunbars,  and  the  Umfrevilles,  and 
two  hundred  knights.  And  Owen,  the  Prince  of 
Wales,  came  with  two  hundred  shields,  and  the  Duke 
of  Burgundy  with  three  hundred  knights.  Ydromor, 
the  son  of  the  King  of  Galloway,  came  with  an 
hundred  and  fifty  knights.  And  the  knights  of 
England  were  numbered  at  three  hundred.  And 
Guarin  de  Metz  and  his  companions  encamped  them- 
selves in  tents  set  in  the  forest  nigh  unto  where  the 
tournament  should  be,  well  clad  by  mutual  accord 
in  red  samite,  and  in  warlike  fashion  were  their  steeds 
accoutred  down  to  the  ground.  And  Guarin  himself, 
so  as  to  be  unknown  of  the  others,  bare  a  crest  of  gold. 
Then  resounded  the  tabors,  the  trumpets,  and  the 
saracen  horns,  until  the  valleys  echoed  with  the  sound. 
And  the  tournament  waxed  fierce  and  desperate. 
There  could  one  see  knights  unhorsed,  and  many 
hard  blows  given,  and  many  overcome. 

And  the  damsel,  and  many  ladies,  had  ascended  a 
tower,  and  saw  the  fair  assemblage  of  knights,  and 
how  each  one  bore  himself.  To  record  the  blows  and 
the  issues  I  am  not  minded,  but  Guarin  de  Metz  and 
his  company  proved  that  day  the  best,  the  fairest, 

and  the  most  valiant,  and  above  all,  Guarin  was  the 
most  praised  in  all  ways.  And  the  evening  drew  nigh, 
and  because  of  the  night,  the  tournament  could  no 
longer  endure.  The  knights  departed  to  their  hostels, 
and  Guarin  and  his  companions  returned  privily  to 
their  tents  in  the  forest,  and  disarmed  them,  and 
made  great  rejoicing.  And  not  one  of  the  other 
great  lords  knew  whither  they  went,  or  who  they 
were,  so  secretly  did  they  bear  themselves,  and  they 
were  unknown  of  all. 

And  on  the  morrow  a  general  tourney  was  proclaimed. 
Then  Guarin  came  to  the  joust  as  if  by  chance,  and 
all  unknown,  and  decked  with  ivy  leaves  all  fresh 
from  the  forest.  And  when  the  Duke  of  Burgundy 
espied  him,  anon  he  rushed  upon  him,  and  dealt  him 
a  heavy  blow  with  his  lance,  and  Guarin  struck  him 
back,  and  he  was  unhorsed  in  the  middle  of  the  lists, 
and  then  fell  another,  and  then  a  third.  And  Melette 
of  the  White-Tower  sent  him  her  glove,  and  prayed 
of  him  to  defend  her.  And  he  made  answer  that  he 
would  do  what  in  him  lay,  and  then  he  repaired  to  the 
forest,  and  armed  himself  with  his  red  harness,  and 
came  with  his  companions  into  the  lists,  and  he  was 
victorious  in  the  tourney,  and  held  the  field  against 
all  comers.  Then  was  it  adjudged  by  all  the  great 

lords  and  the  heralds  and  the  umpires,  that  to  Guarin, 
who  was  the  victorious  knight,  of  right  fell  the  prize 
of  the  tournament,  and  Melette  of  the  White-Tower. 
And  with  great  joy  did  he  take  her,  and  the  damsel 
him.  Then  they  sent  for  the  Bishop  of  the  country, 
and,  in  the  sight  of  all,  they  were  wedded.  And 
William  Peverel  made  a  very  rich  feast  at  the  marriage, 
and  when  that  the  feast  was  ended,  Guarin  took  his 
spouse  and  his  company,  and  they  departed  to  White 
Town,  and  there  they  stayed  in  great  felicity  forty 
days.  Then  the  ten  brothers  returned  with  their 
hundred  knights  to  Brittany,  but  Guy,  the  youngest 
brother,  remained  in  England,  and  conquered  with 
his  sword  many  fair  lands,  and  he  was  called  Guy 
PEstrange,  and  from  him  are  descended  all  the  great 
lords  of  England  who  have  for  surname  Estrange. 

And  longwhile  in  great  honour  Guarin  de  Metz 
held  the  lordship  of  White  Town,  but  Jervard,  the 
son  of  Owen,  Prince  of  Wales,  did  him  great  damage, 
and  slew  his  people  and  laid  waste  his  lands.  And 
then  a  day  of  battle  was  appointed,  when  many 
brave  men  perished.  And  in  the  end,  Jervard  was 
vanquished,  for  he  lost  many  of  his  men,  and  he 
abandoned  the  field  and  fled  in  dishonour. 

Then   did  Guarin   appoint   a   very  powerful   and 

brave  knight,  Guy,  the  son  of  Candelou  de  Porkington, 
to  guard  the  honour  of  White  Town  and  the  other 
lands.  And  it  befell  that  the  lady  became  with  child. 
And  when  she  was  delivered  at  the  time  ordained  of 
God,  they  called  the  child  Fulk.  And  when  the  child 
was  seven  years  of  age,  they  sent  him  to  Joce  de  Dynan 
to  teach  and  to  nurture,  for  Joce  was  a  knight  of 
learning.  And  Joce  received  him  with  great  honour 
and  great  tenderness,  and  he  nourished  him  in  his 
chambers  with  his  children,  for  he  had  two  daughters, 
of  whom  the  younger  was  of  the  like  age  with  Fulk, 
and  she  was  called  Hawyse.  And  the  elder  was 
named  Sibylle.  And  at  this  time  there  was  great 
discord  and  strife  betwixt  Sir  Joce  de  Dynan  and 
Sir  Walter  de  Lacy,  who  then  sojourned  much  at 
Ewyas.  And  by  reason  of  this  discord,  many  good 
knights  and  many  brave  men  perished,  for  they 
harried  one  another,  and  set  fire  to  their  lands,  and 
plundered  and  robbed  their  people,  and  much  other 
damage  did  they.  And  when  Fulk  was  eighteen 
years  of  age,  he  was  very  fair,  and  strong,  and  tall. 

And  on  a  day  in  summer,  Sir  Joce  arose  early,  and 

mounted  a  tower  in  the  middle  of  his  castle  to  survey 

the  country.    And  he  looked  towards  the  hill  which 

is   called  Whitecliff,  and  descried  the  fields  covered 


with  knights  and  esquires,  and  men-at-arms  and 
valets,  some  armed  on  horseback,  and  some  a-foot, 
and  he  heard  the  horses  neigh  and  saw  the  helmets 
glitter.  And  amongst  them  he  saw  the  banner  of 
Sir  Walter  de  Lacy,  emblazoned  with  new  gold,  a 
fess  gules.  Then  he  called  to  his  knights,  and  bade 
them  arm  them  and  mount  their  steeds  and  take  their 
crossbowmen  and  their  archers,  and  go  to  the  bridge 
below  the  town  of  Dynan,  and  hold  the  bridge  and 
the  ford  that  none  might  pass  there.  And  Sir  Walter 
and  his  followers  thought  to  pass  in  safety,  but  the 
followers  of  Sir  Joce  drave  them  back,  and  many 
on  both  sides  were  drowned  and  slain.  Then  came 
Sir  Joce  with  his  banner  argent,  three  lions  passant 
azure,  surmounted  with  crowns  or,  and  with  him  were 
five  hundred  knights  and  men-at-arms,  on  horseback 
and  a-foot,  besides  burgesses  and  their  servants,  who 
were  good  men.  And  Joce  passed  the  bridge  in  great 
force,  and  the  hosts  hurled  themselves  against  one 

And  with  his  lance  Joce  pierced  Godebrand,  who 
carried  the  banner  of  de  Lacy,  through  his  body,  and 
de  Lacy  lost  his  banner.  Then  the  combatants  fell 
upon  each  other,  and  on  both  sides  there  were  many 
slain.  But  de  Lacy  was  worsted,  wherefore  he  fled 
'7  c 

discomfited,  and  wended  his  way  along  the  river  of 
Teme.  And  the  lady,  with  her  daughters  and  her 
other  maidens,  had  ascended  a  tower,  and  from  there 
they  saw  all  the  battle,  and  devoutly  they  prayed 
God  that  he  would  save  their  lord  and  his  folk  from 
hurt  and  damage.  And  Joce  de  Dynan  knew  Walter 
de  Lacy  by  his  harness,  and  he  saw  him  fleeing  all 
alone,  for  great  fear  had  he  for  his  life.  And  he  drave 
his  spurs  into  his  steed,  and  passed  the  hills  and  vales, 
and  in  a  short  while  he  was  come  up  with  de  Lacy  in 
a  valley  below  the  wood  toward  Broomfield,  and  he 
demanded  of  him  to  yield.  And  de  Lacy  saw  no  one 
save  Joce  only,  and  he  turned  him  back  very  boldly. 
And  they  fell  upon  one  another  fiercely,  for  neither 
looked  for  quarter  from  the  other.  And  they  ex- 
changed great  and  heavy  blows.  And  to  Joce  it 
seemed  that  too  longwhile  did  the  combat  endure,  and 
he  raised  his  sword  with  ire,  and  struck  de  Lacy  on  the 
shield,  so  that  he  clave  it  in  twain,  and  badly  did  he 
wound  him  through  the  left  arm.  And  Joce  at- 
tacked him  hotly,  and  nearly  had  he  taken  him,  when 
Sir  Godard  de  Bruce,  and  two  knights  with  him, 
came  to  the  succour  of  de  Lacy.  And  very  boldly 
did  Sir  Godard  and  his  fellows  assail  Sir  Joce  on  all 
sides,  and  he  defended  himself  against  them  like  a  lion. 

And  the  lady  and  her  daughters  in  the  tower  saw 
their  lord  so  pressed,  that  scarce  could  they  endure,  and 
they  wept,  and  they  swooned,  and  made  great  lament- 
ation, for  never  more  did  they  think  to  see  their  lord 
alive.  And  Fulk  Fitz-Warine  was  left  in  the  castle,  for 
he  was  but  eighteen  years  old,  and  he  heard  the  cry 
in  the  tower,  and  mounted  in  haste,  and  saw  the  lady 
and  all  the  others  weeping.  And  he  went  to  Hawyse, 
and  asked  of  her  what  ailed  her,  and  wherefore  she 
bore  such  doleful  countenance.  And  she  made 
answer,  "  Be  silent.  Little  do  you  resemble  your 
father,  who  is  so  brave  and  so  strong,  and  you  are  a 
coward,  and  always  will  be.  See  you  not  that  my 
lord,  who  has  cherished  and  nourished  you  with  great 
tenderness,  is  in  peril  of  death  yonder  for  lack  of  aid  ? 
And  you,  villain,  go  hither  and  thither  in  safety, 
and  give  it  no  thought."  And  the  valet,  because  of 
her  reproof,  was  all  filled  with  anger  and  vexation, 
and  anon  he  descended  from  the  tower,  and  found  in 
the  hall  an  old  and  rusty  hauberk,  and  forthwith  he 
put  it  on  as  best  he  knew  how,  and  he  took  in  his  hand 
a  large  Danish  axe.  And  he  went  to  a  stable  the 
which  was  nigh  unto  the  postern  leading  to  the  river, 
and  there  he  found  a  pack-horse.  And  forthwith 
he  mounted  the  pack-horse,  and  went  forth  by  the 

postern,  and  soon  passed  the  river,  and  went  to  the 
field  where  his  lord  was  struck  down  from  off  his 
steed,  and  on  the  point  to  be  slain  if  he  had  not  come 
up.  And  Fulk  had  an  ill-fashioned  helm,  the  which 
well-nigh  covered  his  shoulders.  And  at  the  first 
onset  he  struck  with  his  axe  Godard  de  Bruce,  who 
had  seized  his  lord,  and  he  clave  his  spine  in  twain, 
and  he  set  his  lord  again  in  his  saddle.  And  then 
Fulk  addressed  himself  to  Sir  Andrew  de  Preez,  and 
he  dealt  at  him  with  his  axe  on  his  helm  of  white 
steel,  so  that  he  clave  it  clean  to  the  teeth.  And 
Sir  Arnald  de  Lys  saw  well  that  in  nowise  could  he 
escape,  for  he  was  sore  wounded,  and  he  yielded  him 
to  Sir  Joce.  And  de  Lacy  defended  himself,  but  in 
a  little  he  was  captured. 

And  then  were  Sir  Walter  de  Lacy  and  Sir  Arnald 
de  Lys  taken,  and  they  were  led  over  the  river  to  the 
castle  of  Dynan.  Then  spake  Sir  Joce,  "  Friend 
burgess,  you  are  very  strong  and  brave,  and  but  for 
you  I  should  have  been  now  dead.  Much  am  I 
beholden  to  you,  and  shall  be  for  alway.  You  shall 
dwell  with  me,  and  never  will  I  fail  you."  And  Joce 
thought  that  he  had  been  a  burgess,  for  the  burgesses 
of  right  carried  arms,  and  those  which  the  lad  bore 
were  rusty  and  rude.  Then  the  lad  made  answer 


and  said,  "  Sire,  I  am  no  burgess.  Know  you  me 
not  ?  I  am  Fulk,  your  foster-child."  "  Fair  son," 
said  he,  "  blessed  be  the  day  that  ever  I  nourished 
you.  Never  is  labour  lost  which  is  done  for  a  brave 

Then  they  led  Sir  Walter  and  Sir  Arnald  to  a  tower 
which  is  called  Pendover,  and  there  they  caused  their 
wounds  to  be  dressed,  and  they  guarded  them  in  great 
honour.  And  each  day  the  lady  and  her  daughters 
and  their  damsels  comforted  and  solaced  Sir  Walter 
and  Sir  Arnald  de  Lys. 

And  Sir  Arnald  was  a  young  bachelor,  and  fair, 
and  he  was  greatly  overcome  of  love  of  Marion  de  la 
Bruere,  a  very  pretty  damsel,  and  she  was  the  chief 
serving- woman  to  the  lady  of  the  castle  of  Dynan. 
And  oft  did  Sir  Arnald  and  the  damsel  hold  converse 
together,  for  each  day  she  came  unto  the  tower  with 
her  lady  for  to  comfort  Sir  Walter  de  Lacy  and  Sir 
Arnald.  And  on  a  day  it  happed  that  Sir  Arnald, 
when  that  he  saw  occasion,  besought  the  damsel,  and 
said  that  she  was  the  one  he  most  loved,  and  so  much 
was  he  overcome  of  love  of  her,  that  no  rest  could  he 
have  day  or  night  without  she  yielded  to  him,  for  she 
could  aid  him  in  all  his  troubles.  And  if  this  she 
would  do,  then  would  he  plight  his  honour  that  never 

another  would  he  love,  but  her  only,  and  as  soon  as 
he  should  be  free,  then  would  he  take  her  to  wife. 
And  the  damsel  heard  the  fair  promise,  and  granted 
unto  him  to  do  all  his  will,  and  took  surety  of  him  that 
he  would  do  by  her  according  to  his  promise.  And  the 
damsel  made  promise  to  them  that  she  would  privily 
aid  them  to  the  utmost,  to  the  end  that  they  might 
be  delivered  out  of  prison.  And  she  took  towels  and 
sheets,  and  carried  them  to  the  tower,  and  sewed  them 
together,  and  with  these  she  let  down  Sir  Walter 
and  Sir  Arnald  from  the  tower,  and  she  prayed  of 
them  to  keep  their  faith,  and  the  promise  which 
they  had  made  unto  her.  And  they  answered  her 
that  loyally  would  they  behave  to  her,  without 
breaking  their  pledge,  and  they  commended  her  to 

And  Sir  Walter  and  Sir  Arnald  departed  on  their 
way  all  alone  a-foot.  And  at  daybreak  they  came  to 
Ewyas,  to  the  castle  of  Sir  Walter  de  Lacy.  And 
when  the  people  saw  their  lord  returned  sound  and 
in  health,  it  needs  not  to  ask  if  they  were  well  pleased, 
for  they  thought  to  have  lost  him  for  aye.  And  on 
the  morrow,  Joce  de  Dynan  arose,  and  he  went  to 
his  chapel  within  the  castle,  the  which  was  built  and 
was  dedicated  to  the  honour  of  the  Magdalene,  and 

the  day  of  dedication  was  the  day  of  St.  Cyriac,~with 
seventy  days  of  pardon.  Here  he  heard  the  service 
of  God,  and  when  that  he  had  done  this,  he  ascended 
the  highest  tower  which  is  in  the  third  bailey  of  the 
castle,  the  which  is  now  called  of  many  Mortimer. 
And  for  this  reason  has  it  the  name  of  Mortimer, 
that  longwhile  was  one  of  the  Mortimers  imprisoned 
in  it.  And  Joce  surveyed  the  country,  and  naught 
saw  he  amiss.  And  he  descended  from  the  tower, 
and  sounded  the  horn  for  washing,  and  sent  for  his 
prisoner,  Sir  Walter,  for  he  held  him  in  such  honour 
that  never  would  he  wash  or  eat  afore  him.  And 
the  prisoners  were  sought  everywhere.  But  to  no 
purpose  was  it,  for  they  were  escaped.  And  Sir  Joce 
made  no  semblance  of  regret  for  their  going,  nor  did 
he  take  any  heed  of  it. 

And  Sir  Walter  thought  to  avenge  himself  or  die. 
And  he  sent  for  his  people  of  Ireland,  and  took  into 
his  pay  knights  and  others,  so  that  there  was  rude 
combat  and  hard  fighting  betwixt  Sir  Walter  and 
Sir  Joce.  And  the  earls  and  the  barons  of  England 
saw  the  great  mortality  and  the  hurt  which  had 
chanced,  and  which  still  chanced  betwixt  them  from 
day  to  day,  so  that  they  devised  a  love-day  between 
Sir  Walter  and  Sir  Joce,  and  then  all  grievances  were 

redressed,  and  the  parties  were  reconciled,  and 
before  the  great  lords  they  embraced  one  another. 

And  Joce  de  Dynan  sent  letters  to  Guarin  de  Metz, 
the  father  of  the  lad  Fulk,  and  to  Melette,  his  good 
lady.  And  Fulk  was  dark  of  countenance,  and  because 
of  this  he  was  called  of  many  Fulk  le  Brun. 

Then  Guarin  and  Melette,  with  a  great  retinue, 
came  to  the  castle  of  Dynan,  and  there  they  were 
received  with  much  honour  and  gladness,  and  they 
tarried  there  a  week.  And  Joce  spake  with  great 
courtesy  to  Guarin,  and  said  to  him,  "  Sire,  here  have 
you  a  son  whom  I  have  fostered  for  you.  I  trust  that 
he  will  be  a  brave  and  valiant  man,  and  that  he  will 
be  your  heir  if  he  survive  you.  And  I  have  two 
daughters  who  are  my  heirs,  and  if  so  it  pleases  you, 
I  would  that  we  may  be  allied  by  marriage,  and  then 
scarce  shall  we  fear  that,  for  any  great  lord  in  England, 
our  cause  shall  not  be  maintained  of  right  and  of 
justice.  And  if  you  will  grant  this,  I  would  that 
Fulk  le  Brun  wed  Hawyse,  my  younger  daughter, 
and  that  he  be  heir  to  the  moiety  of  all  my  lands." 
And  Guarin  gave  him  much  thanks  for  his  fair  offer, 
and  said  that  he  would  grant  unto  him  all  according 
to  his  wish.  And  on  the  morrow  they  sent  to  Here- 
ford for  the  Bishop  de  .  .  .  .  And  the  Bishop  came, 

and  with  great  honour  he  wedded  them.  And  Joce 
held  high  festival  for  fifteen  days.  And  when  the 
feast  was  ended,  Sir  Joce  and  Sir  Guarin  and  their 
households  departed  to  Hartland,  for  there  would 
they  sojourn  awhile.  And  Marion  de  la  Bruere 
feigned  to  be  sick,  and  she  lay  in  her  bed,  and  said 
that  so  sick  was  she,  that  she  could  not  move  save 
with  great  dolour.  And  she  remained  at  the  castle 
of  Dynan.  And  Joce  commanded  that  she  be  well 
cared  for.  And  for  fear  of  de  Lacy  and  of  other  folk, 
he  took  into  his  pay  thirty  knights,  and  seventy 
fighting-men  and  valets,  and  he  delivered  unto  them 
his  castle  to  guard  until  the  time  of  his  return  into 
the  country.  And  when  Joce  was  departed,  Marion 
sent  a  message  on  the  morrow  to  Sir  Arnald  de  Lys, 
and  she  prayed  of  him,  for  the  great  amity  that  was 
between  them,  that  he  would  not  forget  the  coven- 
ants made  between  them,  and  that  he  would  come  in 
all  haste  to  speak  with  her  at  the  castle  of  Dynan,  for 
that  her  lord,  and  her  lady,  and  the  greater  part  of 
their  household,  were  departed  to  Hartland,  and  that 
he  would  come  to  the  self-same  place  where  aforetime 
he  had  escaped  from  the  castle.  And  when  Sir 
Arnald  had  heard  the  message  of  his  mistress,  forth- 
with he  sent  back  the  same  messenger,  and  prayed 

of  her  that  for  the  love  of  him  she  would  measure 
the  height  of  the  window  by  the  which  he  had  made 
good  his  escape  from  the  castle,  and  that  she  would 
send  back  word  by  the  same  messenger  what  kind 
of  folk,  and  how  many,  and  what  household,  her  lord 
had  left  behind  him.  And  the  damsel,  who  had  no 
suspicion  of  treason,  took  a  silken  thread,  and  let  it 
down  from  the  window  to  the  ground,  and  then  she 
sent  to  Sir  Arnald  all  the  condition  of  the  castle. 
And  Sir  Arnald  sent  back  word  to  his  mistress  that 
on  the  fourth  day,  before  the  hour  of  midnight,  he 
would  be  at  the  same  window  by  the  which  he  had 
passed  out,  and  he  prayed  of  her  to  await  him  there. 
And  Sir  Arnald  de  Lys  caused  a  ladder  of  leather 
to  be  made  of  the  same  length  as  the  silken  thread 
which  his  mistress  had  sent  unto  him.  Then  went 
Sir  Arnald  to  Sir  Walter  de  Lacy,  his  lord,  and  re- 
counted unto  him  how  that  Fulk,  the  son  of  Guarin 
de  Metz,  had  wedded  Hawyse,  the  daughter  of  Sir 
Joce  de  Dynan,  and  how  that  Sir  Guarin  and  Sir  Joce 
had  left  a  garrison  in  the  castle  of  Dynan,  and  had 
themselves  departed  to  Hartland  to  seek  fighting- 
men,  and  there  to  assemble  their  men,  and  to  muster 
a  host,  and  people  without  number.  "  And,"  said 
he,  "  when  all  the  host  shall  be  assembled,  forthwith 

will  they  come  to  Ewyas,  and  will  burn  and  seize 
your  lands.  And  if  they  can  take  your  body,  you 
will  be  cut  in  small  pieces,  and  you  and  yours  will  be 
disinherited  for  ever.  And  she  who  sends  me  this 
news  is  well  known  unto  you,  and  she  knows  and  has 
heard  the  truth." 

And  when  Sir  Walter  heard  these  tidings,  he  became 
all  pale  with  rage,  and  said,  "  Certes,  I  cannot  believe 
that  Sir  Joce  would  do  me  such  deceit,  since  we  are 
reconciled,  and  before  many  did  we  embrace  each 
other.  And  sorely  was  I  vexed  that  our  peers  said 
that  by  me  would  the  truce  be  broken,  and  that 
Sir  Joce  is  held  as  a  loyal  knight."  "  Sire,"  made 
answer  Sir  Arnald,  "  you  are  my  lord.  I  warn  you 
of  your  hurt,  for  I  know  the  truth  from  her  who  has 
heard  speak  of  the  matter.  And  tell  me  not  at 
another  time  that  I  knew  of  your  hurt,  and  would 
not  warn  you  of  it,  nor  that  I  have  belied  my  fealty 
unto  you." 

And  Sir  Walter  became  very  pensive,  for  he  knew 
none  to  counsel  him  well  in  the  matter.  And  at  last 
he  said,  "  Sir  Arnald,  what  do  you  counsel  me  ?  " 
"  Sire,"  said  he,  "  put  trust  in  my  counsel,  and  you 
will  do  well.  I  myself  will  go,  with  my  company, 
and  by  a  ruse  will  I  take  the  castle  of  Dynan.  And 

when  Sir  Joce  shall  have  lost  his  stronghold,  then  will 
he  harry  you  the  less,  and  he  will  give  up  his  purpose, 
and  by  so  much  will  you  be  avenged  on  him  for  the 
shame  which  ofttimes  he  has  brought  upon  us.  And 
consider,  Sire,  that,  whether  it  be  right  or  wrong, 
it  is  meet  that  a  man  avenge  himself  on  his  enemy." 

And  Sir  Walter  yielded  himself  in  all  things  to  the 
counsel  of  Sir  Arnald,  and  he  thought  that  he  had 
spoken  to  him  truly  in  all  that  he  had  said ;  but  he 
lied  unto  him  like  a  false  knight. 

And  Sir  Arnald  got  ready  his  company,  which  was 
large,  for  he  had  more  than  a  thousand  of  knights 
and  of  esquires  and  of  men-at-arms.  And  he  came  to 
the  castle  of  Dynan  by  night,  and  he  caused  some  of 
his  company  to  remain  in  the  wood  nigh  unto  White- 
cliff,  and  the  others  to  embush  themselves  below  the 
castle  in  the  gardens.  And  the  night  was  very  dark, 
so  that  they  were  not  perceived  by  the  watch,  nor 
by  any  other.  And  Sir  Arnald  took  with  him  an 
esquire  who  carried  the  leathern  ladder,  and  they 
went  to  the  window  where  Marion  awaited  them. 
And  when  she  saw  them,  never  was  she  so  joyful, 
and  she  let  down  a  cord,  and  drew  up  the  ladder,  and 
made  it  fast  to  a  crenelle  in  the  wall.  And  safely 
and  easily  did  Sir  Arnald  mount  the  tower,  and  he 

took  his  love  in  his  arms  and  kissed  her.  And  they 
had  great  joy,  and  went  thence  into  another  chamber 
and  supped,  and  then  went  they  to  bed,  and  the 
ladder  was  left  hanging.  And  the  esquire  who  had 
carried  it  sought  the  knights  and  the  large  company 
who  were  ambushed  in  the  garden  of  the  lord  and 
elsewhere,  and  he  brought  them  to  the  ladder.  And 
an  hundred  men,  well  armed,  mounted  by  the  leathern 
ladder,  and  descended  from  the  tower  Pendover, 
and  went  by  the  wall  behind  the  chapel.  And  they 
found  the  watch  asleep,  for  he  seemed  heavy  with 
the  presentiment  of  death.  And  forthwith  they  took 
him,  and  would  have  cast  him  down  from  the  tower 
into  the  deep  fosse  but  that  he  cried  them  mercy, 
and  begged  of  them  that  they  would  let  him  whistle 
a  note  ere  he  died.  And  they  granted  unto  him  his 
request,  but  this  he  asked  to  the  end  that  the  knights 
within  might  be  warned.  But  all  in  vain  was  it,  for 
whilst  he  whistled,  most  of  the  knights  and  the  men- 
at-arms  were  cut  to  pieces.  And  they  screamed,  and 
cried  out  in  their  beds,  that  God  might  have  pity. 
But  the  companions  of  Sir  Arnald  were  without  pity, 
and  all  within  were  put  to  a  cruel  death,  and  many 
a  sheet  that  was  white  at  even,  was  all  reddened  with 
blood.  And  then  they  cast  the  watch  into  the  deep 

fosse,  and  his  neck  was  broken.  And  Marion  de  la 
Bruere  lay  beside  her  love,  Sir  Arnald,  and  knew 
naught  of  the  treason  that  Sir  Arnald  had  committed. 
And  she  heard  great  ado  in  the  castle,  and  she  arose  and 
looked  down  from  the  castle,  and  heard  the  clamour, 
and  the  cries  of  the  wounded,  and  she  saw  the  armed 
knights  and  their  white  helms  and  hauberks.  Then 
did  she  perceive  that  Sir  Arnald  had  deceived  her, 
and  had  betrayed  her,  and  she  began  to  weep  very 
sadly,  and  said  ruefully,  "  Alas  that  ever  I  was  born 
of  mother  !  for,  by  my  fault  has  my  lord,  Sir  Joce, 
who  has  fostered  me  in  safety,  lost  his  castle  and  his 
brave  men,  and  if  I  had  never  been,  naught  would  have 
been  lost.  Alas  that  ever  I  put  my  trust  in  this  knight, 
for  by  his  cunning  he  has  deceived  me,  and  my  lord, 
who  is  still  more  to  me  !  "  And  all  weeping,  Marion 
drew  the  sword  of  Sir  Arnald  and  said,  "  Awaken, 
Sir  Knight,  for  you  have  led  a  strange  company  into 
the  castle  of  my  lord  without  warrant.  But  if  you, 
Sire,  and  your  esquire,  were  lodged  by  me,  not  so 
were  the  others,  who  are  here  by  your  means.  And 
since  you  have  deceived  me,  you  cannot  rightly  blame 
me  if  I  render  unto  you  service  according  to  your 
desert.  Never  shall  you  make  boast  to  any  mistress 
that  you  may  have,  that  by  my  deceit  you  gained  the 

castle  of  Dynan  and  the  country."  And  the  knight 
arose.  And  Marion,  with  the  sword  which  she  held 
drawn  in  her  hand,  ran  it  through  the  body  of  the 
knight,  and  the  knight  perished  forthwith.  And 
Marion  knew  well  that  if  she  were  taken,  she  would 
be  delivered  over  unto  a  cruel  death,  and  she  knew 
not  what  to  do.  So  she  let  herself  fall  from  a  window 
towards  Linney,  and  brake  her  neck. 

And  the  knights  who  were  in  the  castle  unfastened 
the  gates,  and  they  sallied  forth  into  the  town.,  and 
opened  the  gate  of  Dynan  towards  the  river,  and 
made  all  their  men  to  come  in.  And  at  the  end  of 
each  street  in  the  town  they  placed  many  men,  and 
caused  the  town  to  be  set  on  fire.  And  the  burgesses 
and  the  fighting-men  of  the  town,  when  they  saw 
the  fire,  rose  from  their  beds,  some  naked,  and  others 
clad,  and  they  knew  not  what  to  do,  for  they  were  all 
well-nigh  mad.  And  the  knights  and  the  esquires 
of  de  Lacy  fell  upon  them,  and  cut  them  to  pieces, 
and  slew  of  them  a  great  number.  And  the  bur- 
gesses could  not  defend  themselves,  neither  knew  they 
how,  and  all  who  were  found  were  cut  to  pieces,  or 
burnt  in  the  fire.  And  the  damsels  fled  by  the  lanes, 
and  saw  their  fathers  and  their  brothers  lie  slain  in 
the  way,  and  they  fell  on  their  knees,  and  prayed 

mercy,  and  pardon  of  their  life.  But  it  was  in  vain, 
as  the  history  recounts.  Men,  women,  and  children, 
young  and  old,  all  were  slain,  either  by  weapon  or 
by  fire. 

And  at  last  the  day  dawned,  and  then  they  sent 
to  their  lord  that  he,  with  all  his  force,  should  come 
to  the  castle  of  Dynan.  And  this  he  did,  and  he 
caused  his  banner  to  be  raised  on  Pendover  in  sign 
that  he  had  gained  the  place  where  once  he  was  put 
in  prison.  But  the  town,  and  all  that  was  therein, 
was  burnt  to  ashes. 

And  when  the  news  came  to  Sir  Joce  and  to  Sir 
Guarin  de  Metz,  they  were  sore  grieved,  and  sad  and 
sorrowful.  Then  they  sent  far  and  near  to  their 
kinsmen  and  their  friends  and  their  own  folk,  so  that 
they  had,  within  the  month,  seven  thousand  hardy 
men,  well  appointed.  And  they  came  to  the  castle  of 
Key,  which  is  entrenched  upon  a  little  hill  a  league's 
distance  from  Dynan.  But  Castle  Key  was  old  at 
that  time,  and  the  gates  were  rotten,  for  no  one  had 
dwelt  therein  for  the  space  of  an  hundred  years. 
For  Key,  the  seneschal  of  my  lord  King  Arthur, 
built  it,  and  to  him  belonged  all  the  country,  and 
even  now  it  bears  the  name,  for  the  country  folk  call 
it  Keyenham.  And  Joce,  and  Guarin,  and  Fulk  le 

Brun,  with  their  men,  went  on  the  morrow  to  the 
castle  of  Dynan,  and  attacked  it  very  fiercely  on  all 
sides.  And  right  bravely  did  Sir  Walter  and  his 
knights  defend  the  crenelles  and  the  walls.  And  then 
Sir  Walter  and  his  Irish  men  sallied  forth  from  the 
castle,  and  they  made  a  fierce  onset  on  those  who 
were  without.  And  Joce,  and  Guarin,  and  Fulk 
assailed  them  on  all  sides,  and  slew  them  in  great 
numbers.  And  the  Irish  lay  cut  to  pieces  in  the 
fields  and  the  gardens,  so  that  Sir  Walter  and  his  men 
were  worsted,  and  he  and  his  men  retreated,  and 
entered  the  castle,  and  defended  the  walls.  And  if 
they  had  remained  without,  very  grievous  tidings 
would  they  have  heard. 

And  Sir  Joce  and  Sir  Guarin  returned  to  their 
lodgings  and  disarmed  them,  and  when  they  had 
eaten,  they  made  merry  together. 

And  on  the  morrow  they  attacked  the  castle  very 
fiercely  on  all  sides,  but  they  could  not  take  it.  And 
all  they  could  find  without,  they  cut  to  pieces.  And 
longwhile  the  siege  endured.  And  thereafter  it  happed 
that,  by  the  assent  of  a  King  of  England,  the  gates  of 
the  castle,  which  were  treble,  were  burnt  and  con- 
sumed by  fire,  the  which  was  kindled  with  bacon  and 
with  grease,  and  the  tower  over  the  gate  was  burned 
33  D 

likewise.  And  the  high  tower  which  is  in  the  third 
bailey  of  the  castle,  the  which  was  so  strong  and  so 
well  built  that  at  that  time  was  no  stronger  or  better 
known,  was  in  great  part  thrown  down,  and  the 
bailey  was  well-nigh  all  destroyed. 

And  Sir  Guarin  fell  sick,  and  took  his  leave  of 
Sir  Joce,  and  he  went  to  Alberbury  with  one  esquire 
only,  and  died.  And  Fulk  le  Brun,  when  his  father 
was  dead,  came  to  Alberbury,  and  received  the  homage 
and  the  fealty  of  all  the  people  who  held  of  his  father, 
and  he  took  his  leave  of  Melette,  his  mother,  and  of 
Hawyse,  his  wife,  and  then  returned  he  to  Sir  Joce, 
and  related  unto  him  that  which  had  happened  to 
his  father,  at  the  which  news  was  Joce  sore  grieved. 

And  Sir  Walter  was  sorrowful  and  an  angered  that 
he  had  lost  his  men,  and  he  feared  much  to  be  beaten 
and  vanquished,  and  he  thought  within  himself  very 
anxiously,  and  then  he  sent  a  letter  to  Jervard  Droyn- 
doun,  the  Prince  of  Wales,  as  to  his  lord,  friend,  and 
kinsman,  and  he  recounted  unto  him  by  letter  how 
that  Sir  William  Peverel,  who  held  Maelor  and  Elles- 
mere,  was  dead,  and  that  those  lands  were  of  the 
seigniory  pertaining  to  Powis,  and  that  wrongfully 
did  Sir  William  hold  them  by  gift  of  the  King  of 
England,  and  that  the  King  would  seize  them  for  his 

own.  "  And,  if  he  does  so,  a  very  bad  neighbour  will 
he  be  to  you,  for  he  loves  you  not.  And  because  of 
this,  Sire,  come  you,  and  challenge  your  right,  and  if 
so  it  pleases  you,  send  me  succour,  for  closely  am  I 
(besieged  in  the  castle  of  Dynan." 

And  Jervard,  when  he  heard  the  news,  assembled 
the  Welsh,  and  the  Scotch,  and  the  Irish,  to  the 
number  of  more  than  twenty  thousand,  and  then  he 
hasted  to  the  march,  and  burnt  the  towns,  and  plun- 
dered the  people,  and  so  great  a  host  had  he,  that  the 
country  could  not  withstand  them.  And  Joce  was 
wary,  and  he  learnt  of  the  approach  of  Jervard,  and 
he  and  his  people  and  Fulk  armed  themselves,  and 
boldly  did  they  attack  Roger  de  Powis  and  Jonas  his 
brother,  who  came  in  the  vanguard  of  the  host  of 
Jervard,  and  they  slew  many  of  their  men.  And 
Roger  and  Jonas  could  not  withstand  the  attack,  and 
they  resorted  again  backward.  And  at  length  came 
Jervard,  armed,  and  his  arms  were  or,  quarterly 
gules,  and  in  each  quarter  a  leopard.  And  he  at- 
tacked Sir  Joce  and  Fulk.  And  longwhile  did  they 
defend  themselves,  and  they  slew  many  of  their  people, 
but  they  had  so  great  plenty  of  people,  that  Sir  Joce 
could  not  continue  the  strife,  and  he  fell  back  upon 
Castle  Key,  at  a  league  from  Dynan.  But  much 

misfortune  came  to  him,  for  he  had  lost  many  of  his 
men.  And  Jervard  and  de  Lacy,  who  were  now 
o'erjoyed,  pursued  Sir  Joce  and  Fulk,  and  besieged 
them  in  the  small  castle,  and  attacked  them  very 
fiercely.  And  for  three  days,  without  eating  or 
drinking,  Joce  and  Fulk  defended  their  old  and  weak 
castle  against  all  the  host.  And  on  the  fourth  day 
Sir  Joce  said  that  greater  honour  would  it  be  to  them 
to  quit  the  castle,  and  to  die  on  the  field  with  honour, 
than  to  die  of  hunger  with  dishonour  in  the  castle. 
And  anon  they  sallied  forth,  and  at  their  first  encounter 
they  slew  more  than  three  hundred  knights,  esquires, 
and  men-at-arms.  And  Jervard  Droyndoun  and 
de  Lacy  and  their  men  attacked  Sir  Joce  and  his  men, 
and  they  defended  themselves  like  lions,  but  they 
were  hemmed  in  of  so  many,  that  no  longer  could 
they  endure,  for  the  horse  of  Sir  Joce  was  killed,  and  he 
himself  was  sore  wounded,  and  of  his  knights,  some 
were  taken  and  some  were  slain.  Then  they  took 
Sir  Joce  and  his  knights,  and  they  sent  them  to  prison 
in  the  castle  of  Dynan,  there  where,  aforetime,  he 
was  lord  and  master. 

And  when  Fulk  saw  Sir  Joce  taken  and  led  away, 
he  was  well-nigh  beside  himself  with  grief  and  anger, 
and  he  spurred  his  horse,  and  with  his  lance  he  struck 

through  the  body  a  knight  who  led  him.  Then  came 
Owen  Keveyloc,  a  bold  and  fierce  knight,  and  with 
a  lance  of  ash  he  struck  Fulk  through  the  hollow  of 
his  body,  and  the  lance  brake,  and  the  piece  remained 
in  his  body,  but  his  entrails  were  not  touched.  And 
Fulk  felt  himself  to  be  sorely  wounded,  and  no  longer 
could  he  defend  himself,  so  he  took  to  flight,  and  the 
others  followed  hard  after  him  for  two  leagues  and 
more,  and  when  they  could  not  come  up  with  him, 
they  turned  back,  and  they  seized  all  the  lands  which 
belonged  to  Fulk.  And  they  took  Guy,  the  son  of 
Candelou  de  Porkington,  who  was  constable  to  Fulk, 
and  put  him  in  prison  at  Rhuddlan,  and  his  seven 
sons  with  him. 

And  in  sore  grief  was  Fulk  for  his  lord,  and  having 
heard  how  that  King  Henry  was  dwelling  at  Gloucester, 
he  went  straightway  thither.  And  as  he  neared  the 
town,  the  King  was  about  to  divert  himself  in  a 
meadow  after  supper,  and  he  saw  Fulk  coming  armed 
on  horseback,  and  riding  very  painfully,  for  he  was 
weak,  and  his  steed  was  weary.  Then  said  the  King, 
"  Let  us  wait,  for  now  shall  we  hear  news."  And 
Fulk  came  up  to  the  King  on  his  horse,  for  he  could 
not  dismount,  and  he  told  unto  the  King  the  whole 
of  the  affair.  And  the  King  rolled  his  eyes  very 

fiercely,  and  said  that  he  would  avenge  himself  of 
such  evil-doers  in  his  realm.  And  he  asked  of  him 
who  he  was,  and  who  was  his  father.  And  Fulk 
recounted  unto  the  King  where  he  was  born,  and  of 
what  people,  and  how  that  he  was  the  son  of  Guarin 
de  Metz.  "  Fair  son,"  said  the  King,  "  you  are  very 
welcome  to  me,  for  you  are  of  my  blood,  and  I  will 
aid  you."  And  the  King  caused  his  wounds  to  be 
dressed.  And  he  sent  for  Melette,  his  mother,  and 
for  Hawyse,  his  wife,  and  the  rest  of  their  household, 
and  kept  them  with  him,  and  caused  Hawyse  and 
Melette  to  dwell  in  the  chambers  of  the  Queen. 
And  Hawyse  was  with  child,  and  when  her  time  was 
come,  she  was  delivered,  and  they  caused  the  child  to 
be  named  Fulk.  And  he,  in  his  day,  was  greatly 
renowned,  and  of  good  right  was  this  so,  for  peerless 
was  he  in  strength  and  goodness. 

And  when  Fulk  le  Brun  was  healed  of  his  wounds, 
King  Henry  sent  a  letter  to  Sir  Walter  de  Lacy,  and 
he  commanded  him,  on  pain  of  life  and  limb,  that  he 
should  deliver  up  to  him  his  knight  Joce  de  Dynan, 
and  his  knights,  whom  wrongfully  he  kept  in  prison, 
and  if  this  he  did  not  do,  then  would  he  come  seek 
them  himself,  and  would  do  such  justice  that  all 
England  should  hear  speak  of  it.  And  when  Sir 

Walter  had  heard  the  message,  he  was  sore  afraid, 
and  he  delivered  up  Sir  Joce  and  his  knights,  and 
furnished  them  with  raiment,  and  mounted  them 
honourably,  and  led  them  through  the  postern  towards 
the  river  of  Teme,  and  beyond  the  ford  of  Teme,  and 
beyond  Whitecliff,  until  they  were  come  unto  the 
highway  to  Gloucester.  And  when  Sir  Joce  was 
come  to  Gloucester,  the  King  received  him  right 
gladly,  and  made  promise  to  him  of  law  and  justice. 
And  Joce  sojourned  with  the  King  so  long  as  it  pleased 
him,  and  then  he  took  leave  of  him,  and  went  to 
Lambourne,  and  dwelt  there.  And  anon  he  died, 
and  was  interred  there.  And  may  God  have  mercy 
on  his  soul ! 

And  King  Henry  called  Fulk  unto  him,  and  made 
him  constable  of  all  his  host,  and  he  gave  into  his 
command  all  the  forces  of  his  land,  that  he  should 
take  men  enough,  and  go  into  the  march,  and  drive 
Jervard  Droyndoun  and  his  men  out  of  the  march. 
Thus  was  Fulk  made  master  over  all,  for  he  was  strong 
and  courageous.  And  the  King  remained  at  Glou- 
cester, for  he  ailed  somewhat,  and  scarce  could  he 
bestir  himself.  And  Jervard  had  seized  the  whole 
march  from  Chester  unto  Worcester,  and  he  had 
dispossessed  all  the  barons  of  the  march.  And  Sir 

Fulk,  with  the  host  of  the  King,  made  many  a  fierce 
assault  on  Jervard,  and  in  a  battle  nigh  unto  Hereford, 
at  Wormeslow,  he  forced  him  to  flee,  and  to  abandon 
the  field.  But  ere  that  came  to  pass,  many  were 
slain  on  both  sides.  And  for  four  years  fierce  and 
grievous  war  endured  betwixt  Sir  Fulk  and  the  Prince, 
until,  at  the  request  of  the  King  of  France,  there  was 
held  at  Shrewsbury  a  love-day  between  the  King  and 
Jervard  the  Prince,  and  they  embraced  one  another, 
and  were  reconciled.  And  the  Prince  restored  to 
the  barons  of  the  march  all  the  lands  which  he  had 
taken  from  them,  and  to  the  King  he  restored  Elles- 
mere,  but  for  no  gold  would  he  render  up  White 
Town  and  Maelor.  "  Fulk,"  said  the  King,  "  since 
you  have  lost  White  Town  and  Maelor,  I  give  unto 
you,  in  place  thereof,  Alleston,  and  all  the  fief  that 
belongs  to  it,  to  hold  for  ever."  And  Fulk  thanked 
him  with  fervour.  And  to  Lewis,  the  son  of  Jervard, 
a  child  of  seven  years,  King  Henry  gave  the  little 
Joan,  his  daughter,  and  for  marriage  gift  he  gave 
unto  them  Ellesmere,  and  many  other  lands,  and 
Lewis  he  took  with  him  to  London.  And  the 
Prince  Jervard,  with  his  retinue,  took  leave  of  the 
King,  and  went  into  Wales,  and  he  gave  White 
Town  and  Maelor  to  Roger  de  Powis.  And  there- 

after    Roger    gave    Maelor    to    Jonas,    his    younger 

Now  have  you  heard  how  that  Sir  Joce  de  Dynan 
and  his  daughters  Sibylle,  the  elder,  and  Hawyse, 
the  younger,  v/ere  dispossessed  of  the  castle  and  fiefs 
of  Dynan,  which  Sir  Walter  de  Lacy  held  wrongfully. 
But  thereafter  was  the  town  of  Dynan  repaired  and 
restored,  and  it  was  called  Ludlow.  And  also  have 
you  heard  how  that  Sir  Fulk,  the  son  of  Guarin  de 
Metz,  was  dispossessed  of  White  Town  and  Maelor. 
And  anon  was  Sibylle,  the  elder  sister,  wedded  with 
Payn,  a  very  valiant  knight,  the  son  of  John. 

And  so  long  time  had  Fulk  and  Hawyse  dwelt  with 
the  King,  that  they  had  five  sons,  Fulk,  and  William, 
and  Philip  the  Red,  and  John,  and  Alan.  And  the 
King  Henry  had  four  sons,  Henry,  and  Richard  Cceur 
de  Lion,  and  John,  and  Geoffrey,  who  was  afterwards 
Count  of  Brittany.  And  Henry  was  crowned  whilst 
yet  his  father  lived,  but  he  died  before  his  father.  And 
after  the  death  of  his  father,  Richard  was  crowned, 
and  after  Richard,  John,  his  brother,  who  all  his  life 
was  evil,  and  perverse,  and  envious.  And  young 
Fulk  was  brought  up  with  the  four  sons  of  King  Henry, 
and  much  beloved  was  he  of  them  all  save  John,  for  oft 
did  he  quarrel  with  John.  And  it  chanced  on  a  day 

that  John  and  Fulk  were  alone  in  a  chamber  playing 
at  the  chess.  And  John  seized  the  chessboard,  and 
gave  Fulk  a  heavy  blow.  And  Fulk  felt  himself  hurt, 
and  he  raised  his  foot,  and  kicked  John  in  the  chest, 
so  that  his  head  struck  against  the  wall,  and  he  became 
all  powerless,  and  fell  down  senseless.  And  Fulk  was 
sore  afraid,  but  glad  was  he  that  no  one  was  in  the 
chamber  save  themselves  alone,  and  he  rubbed  the 
ears  of  John,  and  he  recovered  from  his  faintness,  and 
went  to  the  King,  his  father,  and  made  sore  plaint. 
And  the  King  said,  "  Silence,  fellow,  you  are  ever 
quarrelling.  If  Fulk  has  done  by  you  aught  but  what 
is  good,  it  must  needs  have  been  by  your  own  desert." 
And  he  called  his  master,  and  caused  him  to  beat  him 
soundly  and  well,  because  of  his  plaint. 

And  John  was  sore  an  angered  against  Fulk,  so  that 
never  after  could  he  bear  good-will  toward  him. 
And  when  King  Henry,  the  father,  was  dead,  then 
reigned  King  Richard,  and  because  of  his  loyalty, 
dearly  did  he  love  Fulk  le  Brun  Fitz-Warine,  and  he 
called  before  him  at  Winchester  the  five  sons  of 
Fulk  le  Brun,  the  little  Fulk,  and  Philip  the  Red,  and 
William,  and  John,  and  Alan,  and  their  cousin  Baldwin 
de  Hodnet,  and  he  equipped  them  very  richly,  and 
dubbed  them  knights.  And  the  young  Sir  Fulk  and 

his  brothers,  with  their  company,  passed  the  sea,  for 
to  seek  praise  and  renown.  And  no  tournament  or 
joust  did  he  hear  speak  of,  but  he  would  be  there.  And 
he  was  commended  of  all,  and  the  people  said  for  the 
most  part  that  he  was  peerless  in  strength  and  in 
goodness  and  in  courage,  for  such  grace  had  he,  that 
he  came  to  no  combat  where  he  was  not  held  and 
reputed  for  the  best.  And  it  came  to  pass  that  Fulk 
le  Brun,  their  father,  died.  And  King  Richard  sent 
his  letters  to  Sir  Fulk  that  he  should  come  into  England 
to  receive  his  lands,  for  that  his  father  was  dead. 
And  sorely  grieved  were  Fulk  and  his  brothers  that 
Fulk  le  Brun,  their  good  father,  was  dead.  And  they 
returned  to  London  to  King  Richard,  who  was  much 
pleased  with  them,  and  gave  over  to  them  all  the 
lands  of  which  Fulk  le  Brun  died  possessed.  And  the 
King  made  him  ready  for  the  Holy  Land,  and  he  com- 
mitted all  the  march  into  the  keeping  of  Sir  Fulk. 
And  much  did  the  King  love  and  cherish  him  for  his 
loyalty,  and  for  the  great  renown  which  he  had,  and 
Fulk  was  in  favour  with  the  King  all  the  life  long  of 
King  Richard. 

But  after  his  death,  John,   the  brother  of  King 
Richard,  was  crowned  King  of  England.    Then  he 
sent  to  Sir  Fulk  that  he  should  come  to  him  to  talk 

and  to  treat  of  divers  matters  touching  the  march, 
and  he  said  that  he  would  go  visit  the  march.  And 
he  went  to  the  Castle  Baldwin,  the  which  is  now  called 
Montgomery.  And  when  Moris,  the  son  of  Roger 
de  Powis,  the  lord  of  White  Town,  knew  that  the 
King  was  on  his  way  to  the  march,  he  sent  to  the 
King  a  fine  and  fair  steed,  and  a  gerfalcon  all  white. 
And  the  King  gave  him  much  thanks  for  the  gift. 
Then  came  Moris  to  talk  with  the  King,  and  the 
King  begged  of  him  to  remain,  and  to  be  of  his  council, 
and  he  made  him  guardian  of  all  the  march.  And 
when  Moris  saw  his  time,  he  spake  unto  the  King, 
and  prayed  of  him,  if  so  it  pleased  him,  that  he  would 
confirm  unto  him  by  his  charter  the  honour  of  White 
Town,  to  him  and  to  his  heirs,  as  aforetime  King 
Henry,  his  father,  had  confirmed  it  unto  Roger  de 
Powis,  his  father.  And  the  King  knew  well  that 
Sir  Fulk  had  rightful  claim  to  White  Town,  and  he 
called  to  mind  the  blow  which  Fulk  had  erewhile 
given  him,  and  he  thought  that  now  would  he  be 
avenged  of  him.  And  he  consented  that  whatsoever 
Moris  should  put  in  writing,  that  would  he  put  his  seal 
unto.  And  for  the  doing  of  this  Moris  made  promise 
to  him  of  an  hundred  pounds  of  silver. 
And  there  was,  hard  by,  a  knight  who  had  heard 

all  that  the  King  and  Moris  had  spoken,  and  he  went 
in  haste  to  Sir  Fulk,  and  told  unto  him  that  by  his 
charter  the  King  would  confirm  to  Sir  Moris  the 
lands  which  of  right  were  his.  And  Fulk  and  his  four 
brothers  came  before  the  King,  and  they  besought  of 
him  that  they  might  have  the  common  law,  and  the 
lands  to  which  they  had  claim  and  right  as  the  heritage 
of  Fulk.  And  they  prayed  of  the  King  that  he  would 
receive  from  them  an  hundred  pounds  on  condition  that 
he  would  grant  unto  them  the  decree  of  his  court  in 
respect  of  gain  and  loss.  And  the  King  made  answer 
to  them  that  what  he  had  made  grant  of  to  Sir  Moris, 
that  would  he  hold  to,  whosoever  might  be  offended, 
or  who  not.  Then  spake  Sir  Moris  to  Sir  Fulk,  and 
said,  "  Sir  Knight,  very  foolish  are  you  to  challenge 
my  lands.  If  that  you  say  that  you  have  right  to 
White  Town,  you  lie,  and  if  that  we  were  not  in  the 
presence  of  the  King,  this  would  I  prove  on  your 
body."  And  without  more  ado,  Sir  William,  the 
brother  of  Fulk,  sprang  forward,  and  with  his  fist 
he  struck  Sir  Moris  between  the  eyes,  so  that  he 
became  all  bloody.  And  the  knights  came  between 
them,  so  that  there  was  no  more  hurt  done.  Then 
said  Sir  Fulk  to  the  King,  "Sir  King,  you  are  my  liege 
lord,  and  I  am  bound  by  fealty  to  you  the  whiles  I 

am  in  your  service,  and  as  long  as  I  hold  lands  of 
you,  and  you  ought  to  maintain  my  rights,  but  you 
fail  me  in  my  rights  and  the  common  law.  Never 
was  he  a  good  king  who,  in  his  courts,  denied  the 
law  unto  his  free  tenants.  Wherefore  I  relinquish 
my  homage  to  you."  And  with  these  words  he 
departed  from  the  Court,  and  went  to  his  hostel. 
And  forthwith  did  Fulk  and  his  brothers  arm  them- 
selves, and  Baldwin  de  Hodnet  likewise.  And  when 
they  were  gone  half  a  league  from  the  city,  there  came 
after  them- fifteen  knights,  well  mounted  and  armed, 
the  strongest  and  the  most  valiant  of  the  household 
of  the  King,  and  they  made  command  for  them  to 
turn  back,  and  said  that  they  had  made  promise  to 
the  King  of  their  heads.  And  Sir  Fulk  turned  him  and 
said,  "  Good  Sirs,  very  foolish  were  you  when  you 
made  promise  to  give  that  which  you  cannot  have." 
And  then  they  contended  together  with  lances  and 
with  swords,  so  that  forthwith  four  of  the  most 
valiant  of  the  knights  of  the  King  were  slain,  and  all 
the  others  were  wounded  to  the  point  of  death,  save 
one  who  perceived  the  peril,  and  took  to  flight. 
And  he  came  to  the  city,  and  the  King  asked  of  him 
if  Warine  was  taken.  "  No,"  said  he,  "  nor  nothing 
hurt.  He  and  all  his  comrades  are  departed,  and  we 

were  all  slain,  save  me,  who  with  sore  difficulty  am 
escaped."  Then  said  the  King,  "  Where  is  Gerard 
de  France,  and  Piers  d' Avignon,  and  Sir  Amis  the 
Marquis  ?  "  "  Sire,  they  are  slain."  And  ere  long 
there  came  ten  knights,  all  afoot,  for  Sir  Fulk  had 
taken  their  steeds.  And  some  of  the  knights  had 
lost  their  noses,  and  some  their  chins,  and  all  were 
vanquished.  Then  did  the  King  swear  a  great  oath 
that  he  would  be  avenged  of  them  and  of  all  their 

And  Fulk  came  to  Alberbury,  and  there  he  re- 
counted to  Dame  Hawyse,  his  mother,  how  they  had 
fared  at  Winchester.  And  Fulk  took  great  treasure 
from  his  mother,  and  went,  he  and  his  brothers,  to 
his  cousins  in  Brittany,  and  there  they  sojourned  as 
long  as  it  pleased  them.  And  King  John  laid  hands 
on  all  the  lands  that  Fulk  had  in  England,  and  did 
great  hurt  to  all  his  kinsmen. 

And  Fulk  and  his  four  brothers,  and  Audulf  de 
Bracy,  his  cousin,  and  Baldwin  de  Hodnet,  his  cousin, 
took  leave  of  their  friends  and  their  cousins  in  Brittany, 
and  came  into  England.  And  by  day  they  reposed 
them  in  woods  and  on  moors,  and  by  night  they 
roamed  up  and  down  and  pillaged,  for  they  dared 
not  await  the  King,  as  no  force  had  they  to  with- 

stand  him.  And  ere  long  they  came  to  Huggeford, 
to  Sir  Walter  de  Huggeford,  who  had  wedded  Dame 
Vileine,  the  daughter  of  Guarin  de  Metz,  but  her 
right  name  was  Emeline,  and  she  was  aunt  to  Sir  Fulk. 
And  afterward  Fulk  went  on  his  way  to  Alberbury. 
And  when  he  was  come  there,  he  was  told  of  the 
country  folk  that  his  mother  was  buried,  for  the  which 
Fulk  made  great  lamentation,  and  most  pitifully  did 
he  pray  for  her  soul. 

And  Sir  Fulk  and  his  fellows  went  that  night  into 
a  forest  which  is  called  Babbing,  the  which  is  nigh 
unto  White  Town,  to  espy  Moris  Fitz-Roger.  And 
ere  long  there  came  a  valet  of  the  household  of  Moris, 
and  he  perceived  them,  and  turned  back  and  re- 
counted unto  Moris  that  which  he  had  seen.  And 
Moris  armed  himself  very  richly,  and  took  his  green 
shield  with  two  boars  of  beaten  gold,  a  bordure  argent 
charged  with  fleurs-de-lys  azure.  And  he  had  in  his 
company  the  nine  sons  of  Guy  de  la  Montaigne,  and 
the  three  sons  of  Aaron  de  Clairfontaine,  so  that  there 
were  thirty  well  mounted,  and  five  hundred  men  afoot. 
And  when  Fulk  saw  Moris,  he  came  forth  in  haste 
from  the  forest.  And  between  them  there  was  begun 
a  hard  contest,  and  there  was  Moris  wounded  through 
the  shoulder,  and  many  knights  and  men  afoot  were 

slain.  And  at  last  Moris  fled  towards  his  castle,  and 
Fulk  pursued  after  him,  and  thought  to  strike  him  on 
the  helm  as  he  fled,  but  the  blow  descended  upon 
the  buttock  of  his  steed.  And  at  last  came  Morgan 
Fitz-Aaron,  and  shot  from  the  castle,  and  struck 
Fulk  through  the  leg  with  an  arrow.  And  Fulk  was 
sore  grieved  that  he  could  not  avenge  himself  as  he 
would  on  Sir  Moris,  and  he  took  no  thought  for  the 
wound  in  his  leg.  And  Sir  Moris  made  his  plaint  to 
the  King  that  Sir  Fulk  was  come  again  into  England, 
and  that  he  had  wounded  him  through  the  shoulder. 
And  the  King  became  marvellously  incensed,  and 
he  commanded  that  an  hundred  knights  with  their 
company  go  through  all  England  and  seek  and  take 
Fulk,  and  deliver  him  over  unto  the  King  alive  or 
dead.  And  they  should  have  all  their  costs  of  the 
King,  and  if  they  could  take  him,  then  would  the 
King  give  them  lands  and  rich  fees.  And  the  knights 
went  through  all  England  to  seek  Sir  Fulk,  but  there 
where  they  heard  that  Sir  Fulk  was,  there  would  they 
not  go  for  any  price,  for  they  feared  him  beyond 
measure,  some  for  the  love  they  bear  him,  and  others 
for  fear  of  his  strength  and  his  noble  knighthood, 
lest  hurt  or  death  might  happen  to  them  because  of 
his  strength  and  his  boldness. 

49  * 

And  Sir  Fulk  and  his  company  came  to  the  forest 
of  Bradene,  and  there  they  dwelt  in  secret,  for  they 
dared  not  do  so  openly  because  of  the  King.  Then 
came  from  abroad  ten  burgher  merchants,  who  had 
bought  with  the  money  of  the  King  of  England  very 
costly  cloths,  and  furs,  and  spices,  and  gloves  for  the 
persons  of  the  King  and  Queen  of  England.  And 
they  carried  them  past  the  forest  to  the  King,  and 
there  followed  thirty-four  men-at-arms  to  guard  the 
treasure  of  the  King.  And  when  Fulk  perceived  the 
merchants,  he  called  to  him  his  brother  John,  and 
told  him  to  go  talk  with  these  people,  and  inquire  of 
them  of  what  country  they  were.  And  John  struck 
his  steed  with  his  spurs,  and  he  came  up  with  the 
merchants,  and  demanded  of  them  what  folk  they 
were,  and  from  what  land.  And  a  man,  hasty  of 
speech,  and  proud,  and  fierce,  sprang  forward,  and 
asked  of  him  what  business  he  had  to  make  inquiry 
what  folk  they  were.  And  John  asked  of  them  to  come 
in  love  to  speak  with  his  lord  in  the  forest,  and  if  they 
would  not,  then  should  they  come  in  spite  of  them- 
selves. And  then  one  of  the  fighting-men  sprang  for- 
ward and  dealt  John  a  great  blow  with  a  sword.  And 
John  struck  him  back  on  the  head,  so  that  he  fell  to 
the  ground  senseless. 


Then  came  Sir  Fulk  and  his  company,  and  fell  upon 
the  merchants,  and  they  defended  themselves  with 
great  vigour.  And  in  the  end  they  surrendered 
themselves,  for  to  this  were  they  compelled  by  force. 
And  Fulk  led  them  into  the  forest,  and  they  told 
unto  him  that  they  were  the  merchants  of  the  King. 
And  when  Fulk  heard  this,  right  glad  was  he,  and  he 
said  to  them,  "Sir  Merchants,  if  you  lose  these  goods, 
on  whom  will  the  loss  turn  ?  Tell  me  truly." 
"  Sire,"  said  they,  "  if  we  lose  them  by  our  own 
cowardice,  or  by  our  own  bad  keeping,  then  will  the 
loss  turn  on  us,  but  if  we  lose  them  in  other  manner, 
through  peril  of  the  sea,  or  through  the  violence  of 
man,  then  will  the  loss  turn  upon  the  King."  "  Speak 
you  truly  ?  "  "  Yes,  Sire,"  made  they  answer.  And 
when  Sir  Fulk  heard  that  the  loss  would  be  the  King's, 
he  caused  the  rich  cloth,  and  the  rich  fur,  to  be  measured 
by  his  lance,  and  he  clothed  all  those  who  were  with 
him,  both  of  high  and  low  degree,  with  the  rich  cloth, 
and  gave  unto  each  according  to  his  rank.  And  every 
one  had  ample  measure.  And  of  the  rest  of  the  goods 
each  took  what  he  would. 

And  when  even  was  come,  and  the  merchants  had 
well  eaten,  he  commended  them  to  God,  and  prayed 
of  them  to  salute  the  King  in  the  name  of  Fulk 

Fitz-Warine,  who  much  thanked  him  for  these  fine 
clothes,  and  never  would  Fulk,  nor  any  of  his,  of  all 
the  time  that  they  were  outlawed,  do  harm  to  any 
save  to  the  King  and  to  his  knights.  And  when  the 
merchants  and  their  fighting-men  came  wounded  and 
maimed  before  the  King,  and  recounted  unto  the 
King  the  message  of  Fulk,  and  how  that  Fulk  had 
taken  his  goods,  nigh  mad  went  he  with  rage.  And 
he  caused  it  to  be  cried  throughout  the  kingdom,  that 
whosoever  would  bring  Fulk,  alive  or  dead,  to  him 
would  he  give  one  thousand  pounds  of  silver,  and  he 
would  give  to  him,' beside,  all  the  lands  in  England 
which  belonged  to  Fulk. 

And  Fulk  went  thence,  and  came  into  the  weald  of 
Kent,  and  he  left  his  knights  in  the  thick  of  the  forest, 
and  went  all  alone  on  horse  along  the  highway.  And 
he  met  a  fellow  singing  right  merrily,  and  he  had 
decked  his  head  with  a  chaplet  of  red  roses.  And 
Fulk  prayed  of  him  that  of  love  he  would  give  him 
the  chaplet,  and  if  he  had  need  of  it,  anon  would  he 
give  it  back  to  him.  "  Sire,"  said  the  fellow,  "  very 
sparing  of  his  goods  is  he  who  would  not  bestow  a 
chaplet  of  roses  at  the  request  of  a  knight."  And  he 
gave  the  chaplet  to  Fulk,  and  he  gave  to  him  for 
recompense  twenty  sols.  And  the  fellow  knew  him 

well,  for  often  had  he  seen  him.  And  the  fellow 
came  to  Canterbury,  and  there  he  met  the  hundred 
knights  who  had  sought  Fulk  through  all  England, 
and  he  said  to  them,  "  Whence  come  you,  my  Lords  ? 
Have  you  found  him  whom  you  seek  by  order  of  our 
lord  the  King,  and  for  your  advancement  ?  "  "  No," 
replied  they.  "  What  will  you  give  unto  me,"  said 
he,  "  an  I  take  you  there  where  I  have  seen  him,  and 
have  heard  him  speak  ?  "  And  they  gave  and  made 
promise  of  so  much  to  the  fellow,  that  he  told  unto 
them  where  he  had  seen  him,  and  how  that  he  had 
bestowed  upon  him  twenty  sols  for  the  chaplet  which 
he  had  given  unto  him  for  naught. 

And  the  hundred  knights  caused  all  the  country  to 
be  summoned  in  haste,  the  knights,  the  esquires,  and 
the  fighting-men,  and  they  beset  the  forest  all  around, 
and  set  beaters  and  stops,  as  though  they  were  bent 
on  the  chase,  and  they  put  old  folk  and  others  with 
horns  all  over  the  meadows,  to  raise  the  cry  upon  Fulk 
and  his  companions  when  they  should  come  forth 
from  the  forest. 

And  Fulk  was  in  the  forest,  and  knew  naught  of  the 

affair.     And  ere  long  he  heard  a  knight  sound  a  great 

bugle,  and  he  had  suspicion,  and  he  commanded  his 

brothers,  William,  and  Philip,  and  John,  and  Alan, 


to  mount  their  steeds.  And  his  brothers  mounted 
forthwith.  And  Audulf  de  Bracy,  and  Baldwin  de 
Hodnet,  and  John  Malveysin,  mounted  likewise. 
And  soon  were  the  three  brothers  of  Cosham,  Thomas, 
and  Pierce,  and  William,  who  were  good  crossbowmen, 
and  all  the  rest  of  Fulk's  company,  ready  for  the 

And  Fulk  and  his  companions  issued  out  of  the 
forest,  and  they  saw,  foremost  of  all  the  others,  the 
hundred  knights  who  had  sought  them  throughout 
England.  And  they  fell  upon  them,  and  they  slew 
Gilbert  de  Mountferrant,  and  Jordan  de  Colchester, 
and  many  other  knights  of  the  company.  And  they 
passed  through  the  midst  of  the  hundred  knights, 
and  then  they  returned  amongst  them,  and  struck 
them  down  with  their  swords.  But  at  length  there 
came  to  their  aid  so  many  knights  and  esquires  and 
burgesses  and  fighting-men,  and  folk  without  number, 
that  Fulk  perceived  right  well  that  he  could  not 
endure  the  combat,  so  he  returned  to  the  forest,  but 
his  brother  John  was  wounded  in  the  head  through 
his  helm.  But  ere  they  turned  back  to  the  forest, 
many  brave  knights  and  esquires  and  fighting-men 
were  cut  to  pieces.  And  Fulk  and  his  companions 
struck  their  steeds  with  their  spurs,  and  fled.  And  on 

all  sides  did  the  people  raise  the  hue  and  cry  upon 
them,  and  pursue  them  everywhere  with  a  hue  and 
cry.  And  at  length  they  came  to  a  path,  and  saw 
but  one  raising  the  hue  and  cry  with  a  horn.  And  one 
of  the  company  struck  him  through  the  body  with  an 
arrow,  and  thereupon  he  gave  up  the  hue  and  cry. 

And  Fulk  and  his  companions  quitted  their  horses, 
and  all  afoot  they  fled  to  an  abbey  which  was  nigh. 
And  when  the  porter  espied  them,  he  ran  to  shut  the 
gates.  But  Alan  was  very  tall,  and  forthwith  he 
climbed  over  the  walls,  and  the  porter  began  to  flee. 
"  Stay,"  cried  Alan.  And  he  ran  after  him,  and  took 
the  keys  from  him,  and  with  the  staff  on  which  hung 
the  keys,  he  struck  him  a  blow  which  of  necessity 
stopped  his  flight.  And  Alan  let  in  all  his  brothers. 
And  Fulk  took  the  habit  of  an  old  monk,  and  forth- 
with garbed  himself  in  it,  and  he  took  a  great  crutch 
in  his  hand,  and  went  forth  out  of  the  gate,  and  caused 
the  gate  to  be  shut  after  him,  and  he  went  on  his  way. 
And  then  he  went  limping  on  one  foot,  and  with  his 
body  propped  up  on  the  great  crutch.  And  anon 
there  came  knights  and  fighting-men,  with  much 
people.  And  then  said  a  knight,  "  Old  Sir  Monk, 
have  you  seen  any  armed  knights  pass  by  here  ?  " 
"  Yes,  Sire.  May  God  repay  them  the  hurt  they 

have  done  me  !  "  "  What  have  they  done  to  you  ?  " 
"  Sire,"  said  he,  "  I  am  old,  and  no  longer  can  I  aid 
me,  so  feeble  am  I.  And  there  came  seven  on  horse- 
back, and  nigh  fifteen  afoot,  and  for  that  I  could  not 
get  me  hastily  out  of  their  way,  no  care  took  they  for 
me,  but  they  let  their  horses  run  against  me,  and  little 
did  they  reck  of  what  they  did."  "  Say  no  more," 
said  he,  "  this  very  day  shall  you  be  venged."  And  the 
knights,  and  all  the  rest,  went  forward  in  haste  to 
pursue  Fulk,  and  soon  were  they  the  distance  of  a 
league  from  the  abbey.  And  Sir  Fulk  stood  upright 
to  see  more.  And  ere  long  there  came  Sir  Girard 
de  Malfee  and  ten  companions,  knights  well  mounted, 
for  they  were  come  from  abroad.  And  they  brought 
with  them  horses  of  worth.  And  then  said  Girard 
mockingly,  "  Here  is  a  stout  and  strong  monk,  and  he 
has  a  belly  large  enough  to  hold  two  gallons."  And 
the  brothers  of  Fulk  were  within  the  gate,  and  had 
heard  and  seen  all  the  doings  of  Fulk.  And  without 
more  ado,  Fulk  raised  the  great  crutch,  and  struck 
Sir  Girard  under  the  ear,  so  that  he  fell  to  the  earth 
quite  stunned.  And  the  brothers  of  Fulk,  when  they 
saw  this,  sallied  forth  by  the  gate,  and  took  the  ten 
knights,  and  Sir  Girard,  and  all  their  harness,  and 
bound  them  fast  in  the  lodge  of  the  porter,  and  they 

took  all  their  harness,  and  their  good  steeds,  and  went 
their  way,  and  never  did  they  stay  them  until  they 
were  come  to  Huggeford.  And  there  was  John  healed 
of  his  wound. 

And  after  that  they  had  sojourned  there  awhile, 
there  came  a  messenger  who  longwhile  had  sought 
Sir  Fulk,  and  he  saluted  him  on  the  part  of  Hubert, 
the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  and  prayed  of  him 
that  he  would  come  in  haste  and  speak  with  him. 
And  Fulk  took  his  people,  and  came  nigh  unto  Canter- 
bury, in  the  forest  where  afore  he  had  been.  And 
there  he  left  all  his  company  save  his  brother  William. 

And  Fulk  and  William  attired  themselves  as  mer- 
chants, and  came  to  Canterbury  to  the  Bishop  Hubert. 
And  the  Archbishop,  Hubert  le  Botiler,  said  to  them, 
"  Good  sons,  you  are  very  welcome  to  me.  Well 
know  you  that  Sir  Theobald  le  Botiler,  my  brother, 
has  been  called  of  God,  and  that  he  had  wedded 
Dame  Maude  de  Caus,  a  lady  very  rich,  and  the  fairest 
in  all  England.  And  so  much  does  King  John  desire 
her  because  of  her  beauty,  that  scarce  can  she  guard 
herself  from  him.  And  she  is  within,  and  you  shall 
see  her.  And  I  pray  of  you,  dear  friend  Fulk,  and  I 
bid  you  on  my  benison,  that  you  take  her  to  wife."  And 
Fulk  saw  her,  and  well  knew  he  that  she  was  fair,  and 

good,  and  of  good  repute,  and  that  she  had  in  Ireland 
strong  castles,  and  cities,  and  lands,  and  rents,  and 
much  homage.  And  with  the  assent  of  his  brother 
William,  and  by  the  counsel  of  the  Archbishop 
Hubert,  he  wedded  Dame  Maude  de  Caus.  And 
Fulk  remained  there  two  days,  and  then  took  his  leave 
of  the  bishop,  and  left  his  wife  there,  and  he  went 
back  to  the  wood  to  his  companions,  and  he  told  unto 
them  of  all  that  he  had  done.  And  they  mocked 
him,  and  made  game  of  him,  and  called  him  "  hus- 
band," and  they  asked  of  him  whither  he  would  take 
the  fair  lady,  whether  to  castle  or  to  wood,  and  they 
made  merry  together.  And  everywhere  they  did 
great  hurt  to  the  King,  but  to  none  other,  save  only 
to  those  who  were  openly  their  enemies. 

And  there  dwelt  in  the  march  of  Scotland  a  knight 
who  was  called  Robert  Fitz-Sampson,  and  he  ofttimes 
received  Sir  Fulk  and  his  fellows,  and  lodged  them  in 
great  honour.  And  he  was  a  man  of  great  wealth. 
And  his  wife  was  called  Dame  Anable,  and  she  was  a 
very  courteous  lady.  And  at  this  time  there  was  in 
the  country  a  knight  who  was  called  Piers  de  Bruvile. 
And  this  Piers  used  to  gather  together  all  the  wild 
sons  of  the  gentlefolk  of  the  country,  and  other 
ribalds,  and  he  went  up  and  down  the  country,  and 

slew  and  robbed  loyal  folk,  merchants  and  others. 
And  this  Piers,  when  he  went  with  his  company  to 
rob  others,  caused  himself  to  be  called  Fulk  Fitz- 
Warine,  by  the  which  Fulk  and  his  companions  were 
sorely  blamed  for  that  of  which  they  were  not  guilty. 
And  Fulk,  who,  for  fear  of  the  King,  could  not  remain 
too  long  time  in  one  place,  came  by  night  into  the 
march  of  Scotland,  and  he  came  very  nigh  unto  the 
court  of  Sir  Robert  Fitz- Sampson.  And  he  saw  a 
great  light  within  the  court,  and  he  heard  talking 
within,  and  his  name  to  be  oft  mentioned,  and  he 
made  his  companions  to  halt  without.  And  Fulk 
himself  boldly  entered  the  court,  and  then  the  hall, 
and  there  he  saw  Piers  de  Bruvile  and  the  other  knights 
seated  at  supper,  and  Robert  Fitz-Sampson  and  his 
good  lady,  and  the  household,  were  bound,  and  cast 
on  one  side  of  the  hall.  And  Sir  Piers  and  his  com- 
panions were  all  masked,  and  all  who  served  within 
kneeled  before  Sir  Piers,  and  called  him  their  lord 
Sir  Fulk.  And  the  lady,  who  lay  bound  near  her 
lord  in  the  hall,  said  very  pitifully,  "  Ha  !  Sir  Fulk,  by 
God's  mercy,  never  did  I  do  you  hurt,  and  I  have 
always  loved  you  to  my  power."  And  Sir  Fulk  stood 
up,  for  he  had  heard  all  that  she  had  said,  and  when  he 
heard  the  lady  speak,  who  had  done  to  him  great 

kindness,  for  naught  in  the  world  could  he  longer 
contain  himself.  And,  all  alone,  he  stepped  forward 
with  his  sword  drawn  in  his  hand,  and  said,  "  Peace, 
now  !  I  command  of  all  you  whom  I  see  here  that 
no  one  stir  a  whit."  And  he  swore  a  great  oath  that 
if  any  one  made  so  bold  as  to  stir,  him  would  he  hew 
into  small  pieces.  And  Piers  and  his  companions  felt 
themselves  to  be  foiled.  "  Now,"  said  Fulk,  "  which 
among  you  makes  himself  to  be  called  Fulk  ?  "  "  Sire," 
said  Piers,  "  I  am  a  knight,  and  I  am  called  Fulk." 
"  By  God,"  said  he,  "  arise  quickly,  Sir  Fulk,  and  bind 
well  and  fast  all  your  companions,  and  if  not,  you  first 
shall  lose  your  head."  And  Piers  was  much  affrighted 
with  the  menace,  and  he  arose  and  unbound  the  lord, 
and  the  lady,  and  the  rest  of  the  household,  and  bound 
well  and  fast  all  his  companions.  And  when  all  were 
bound,  Fulk  made  him  to  smite  off  the  heads  of  all 
whom  he  had  bound.  And  when  that  he  had  smitten 
off  the  heads  of  all  his  companions,  Fulk  said,  "  You 
craven  knight,  who  make  yourself  to  be  called  Fulk, 
in  so  doing,  you  lie.  I  am  Fulk,  and  that  you  know 
right  well,  and  I  will  repay  you  in  that  you  have 
falsely  accused  me  of  robbery."  And  forthwith  he 
smote  off  his  head,  and  when  he  had  done  this  he 
called  his  companions,  and  they  supped  there,  and 

were  well  pleased.     And  thus  did  Sir  Fulk  save  Sir 
Robert  and  all  his  treasure,  so  that  naught  was  lost. 

And  ofttimes  did  the  King  do  great  hurt  to  Sir 
Fulk.  And  Sir  Fulk,  though  he  was  strong  and  brave, 
was  also  prudent  and  crafty,  for  oft  did  the  King  and 
his  people  pursue  Sir  Fulk  by  the  footprints  of  his 
horses,  and  Sir  Fulk  oft  caused  his  horses  to  be  shod, 
and  the  shoes  to  be  reversed,  so  that  the  King  was 
deceived  and  tricked  in  the  pursuit.  And  many  a 
hard  combat  did  Sir  Fulk  endure  ere  he  won  his 

And  Sir  Fulk  took  his  leave  of  Sir  Robert  Fitz- 
Sampson,  and  went  his  way  to  Alberbury,  and  he  took 
up  his  abode  in  a  forest  nigh  unto  the  river.  And  Fulk 
called  John  de  Rampaigne.  "John,"  said  he,  "enough 
do  you  know  of  minstrelsy  and  of  jugglery.  Dare  you 
to  go  to  White  Town,  and  to  play  before  Moris  Fitz- 
Roger,  and  to  spy  out  his  affairs?"  "Yea,"  answered 
John.  And  he  crushed  a  herb  and  put  it  in  his  mouth, 
and  greatly  did  his  face  begin  to  enlarge  and  to  swell, 
and  it  became  all  discoloured,  so  that  even  his  com- 
panions scarce  knew  him.  And  John  dressed  himself 
very  poorly,  and  he  took  in  his  hand  his  sack  with  his 
implements  of  jugglery,  and  a  great  staff,  and  he  came 
to  White  Town,  and  told  unto  the  porter  that  he 

was  a  juggler.  And  the  porter  led  him  before  Sir 
Moris  Fitz-Roger,  and  Moris  asked  of  him  where  he 
was  born.  "  Sire,"  said  he,  "  in  the  march  of  Scot- 
land." "  And  what  news  bring  you  ?  "  "  Sire, 
naught  do  I  know  save  of  Sir  Fulk  Fitz-Warine,  who 
has  been  slain  in  a  robbery  that  he  made  at  the  house 
of  Sir  Robert  Fitz- Sampson."  "  Say  you  truly  ?  " 
"  Aye,  certes,"  made  he  answer.  "  Thus  say  all  the 
country  folk."  "  Minstrel,"  said  he,  "  for  your  news 
I  will  give  you  this  cup  of  fine  silver."  And  the 
minstrel  took  the  cup,  and  made  much  thanks  to  his 
good  lord.  And  John  de  Rampaigne  was  very  ill- 
favoured  in  face  and  in  body,  and  by  reason  of  this 
the  ribalds  of  the  household  mocked  him,  and  treated 
him  roughly,  and  they  pulled  him  by  his  hair  and  his 
feet.  And  he  raised  his  staff,  and  struck  a  ribald  on 
the  head,  so  that  his  brains  flew  out  in  the  midst  of  the 
place.  "  Wretched  scoundrel,"  said  the  lord,  "  what 
have  you  done  ?  "  "  Sire,"  said  he,  "  help  it  I  could 
not.  God  have  mercy  on  me,  I  have  a  very  grievous 
malady,  the  which  you  can  see  by  my  face  which  is  so 
swollen.  And  at  certain  times  does  this  malady  take 
entire  hold  of  me,  so  that  I  have  not  the  power 
wherewith  to  control  myself."  And  Moris  swore 
a  great  oath  that  if  it  were  not  for  the  news  which 

he  had  brought,  forthwith  would  he  have  had  his 
head  smitten  off.  And  the  minstrel  hastened  to 
depart  thence,  for  the  time  of  his  sojourn  seemed  long 
unto  him.  And  he  returned  to  Fulk,  and  recounted 
unto  him  word  by  word  how  he  had  proceeded,  and 
he  told  how  that  he  had  heard  in  the  court  that 
Sir  Moris,  and  his  fifteen  knights,  and  his  household, 
would  go,  on  the  morrow,  to  the  castle  of  Shrewsbury, 
for  that  he  was  keeper  of  all  the  march.  And  when 
Fulk  knew  that,  right  glad  was  he,  and  his  companions 

And  Fulk  arose  early  on  the  morrow,  and  armed 
himself  in  all  haste,  and  his  companions  likewise. 
And  Moris  came  towards  Shrewsbury,  and  fifteen 
knights  with  him,  and  the  four  sons  of  Guy  Fitz- 
Candelou  de  Porkington,  and  the  rest  of  his  household. 
And  when  Fulk  saw  him,  right  glad  was  he,  and  he 
was  much  an  angered  with  him  by  cause  that  he  kept 
his  heritage  from  him  by  force.  And  Moris  looked 
towards  the  pass  of  Nesse,  and  he  saw  a  shield  quarterly 
gules,  per  fess  indented  argent,  and  by  his  arms  he 
knew  that  it  was  Fulk.  "  Now  I  know  well,"  said 
Moris,  "  that  jugglers  are  liars,  for  there  is  Fulk 

And  Moris  and  his  knights  were  very  brave,  and 

they  attacked  Fulk  and  his  companions  bravely,  and 
called  them  thieves,  and  said  unto  them  that  before 
vespers  their  heads  should  be  placed  on  the  high 
tower  of  Shrewsbury.  And  Fulk  and  his  brothers 
defended  themselves  with  great  vigour,  and  there  Sir 
Moris  and  his  fifteen  knights,  and  the  four  sons  of 
Guy  Fitz-Candelou  de  Porkington,  were  slain,  and 
by  so  many  the  less  had  Fulk  enemies. 

And  from  there  Fulk  and  his  companions  went  on 
their  way  towards  Rhuddlan  to  have  speech  with 
Sir  Lewis,  the  Prince,  who  had  wedded  Joan,  the 
daughter  of  King  Henry,  and  sister  to  King  John,  for 
the  Prince  and  Sir  Fulk  and  his  brothers  were  nur- 
tured together  at  the  Court  of  King  Henry.  And 
greatly  did  the  Prince  rejoice  at  the  coming  of  Sir 
Fulk,  and  he  asked  of  him  what  accord  there  was 
betwixt  the  King  and  him.  "  None,  Sire,"  said  Fulk, 
"  for  by  naught  can  I  be  reconciled,  and  by  reason  of 
this,  Sire,  I  am  come  to  you,  and  to  my  good  lady,  to 
have  your  goodwill."  "Certes,"  said  the  Prince,  "my 
goodwill  do  I  grant  and  give  unto  you,  and  from  me 
shall  you  have  good  welcome.  The  King  of  England 
knows  not  how  to  have  good  understanding  with  you, 
or  with  me,  or  any  other."  And  Fulk  made  answer, 
"  Much  do  I  give  you  thanks,  Sire,  for  much  trust 

have  I  in  you  and  in  your  great  loyalty.  And  since 
ycu  have  granted  to  me  your  goodwill,  one  thing  else 
will  I  tell  you.  Of  a  truth,  Sire,  Moris  Fitz-Roger  is 
dead,  for  I  have  slain  him."  And  when  the  Prince 
learned  that  Moris  was  dead,  he  was  much  an  angered, 
and  he  said  that  if  he  had  not  given  unto  him  his 
goodwill,  him  would  he  have  had  drawn  and  hanged, 
for  that  Moris  was  his  cousin.  Then  came  the  good 
lady,  and  she  made  "the  Prince  and  Sir  Fulk  to  be 
reconciled,  so  that  they  embraced  each  other,  and  all 
anger  was  put  aside. 

And  at  this  time  there  was  great  discord  betwixt 
the  Prince  Lewis  and  Gwenwynwyn,  the  son  of  Owen 
Keveyloc.  And  to  this  Gwenwynwyn  pertained  great 
part  of  the  lands  of  Powis,  and  he  was  very  proud  and 
haughty  and  fierce,  and  in  naught  would  he  submit 
to  the  Prince,  but  made  great  havoc  in  his  land.  And 
by  force  of  arms  the  Prince  had  wholly  destroyed 
the  castle  of  Metheyn,  and  had  taken  possession  of 
Mochnant,  Lannerth,  and  other  lands  which  belonged 
to  Gwenwynwyn.  And  the  Prince  committed  to 
Fulk  the  charge  of  all  his  lands,  and  he  commanded 
him  that  he  should  march  against  Gwenwynwyn  and 
lay  waste  all  his  lands.  And  Fulk  was  prudent  and 
heedful,  and  he  knew  well  that  the  Prince  was  in  the 

wrong.  "  For  the  sake  of  God,  Sire,  grant  me 
pardon,"  said  he,  "  but  if  you  do  that  which  you 
have  devised,  much  will  you  be  blamed  of  all  in 
foreign  lands.  And,  Sire,  if  so  it  pleases  you,  be  not 
an  angered  if  that  I  tell  you  that  all  say  that  you  have 
wronged  him.  And  therefore,  Sire,  for  the  sake  of 
God,  pardon  him,  and  then  will  he  return  to  you  at 
your  pleasure,  and  serve  you  with  goodwill.  And  you 
know  not  when  you  may  have  need  of  your  barons." 
And  so  much  did  Fulk  discourse  with  the  Prince,  and 
plead  with  him,  that  the  Prince  and  Gwenwynwyn  were 
reconciled,  and  the  Prince  restored  to  him  all  the  lands 
which  before  he  had  taken  from  him. 

And  King  John  was  at  Winchester.  And  at  length 
the  news  came  to  him  that  Fulk  had  slain  Moris  Fitz- 
Roger,  and  that  he  was  dwelling  with  Lewis,  the 
Prince,  who  had  wedded  Joan,  his  sister.  And  he 
became  very  pensive,  and  for  longwhile  he  uttered 
never  a  word.  Then  he  said,  "  Ah,  holy  Mary  !  I  am 
the  King,  and  rule  over  England,  and  I  am  Duke  of 
Anjou  and  of  Normandy,  and  all  Ireland  is  within  my 
seigniory,  and,  for  all  that  I  may  give,  no  one  can  I 
find  in  all  my  kingdom  who  will  avenge  me  of  the  hurt 
and  the  shame  that  Fulk  has  done  unto  me.  But  I 
will  not  fail  to  be  avenged  of  the  Prince."  And  he 

caused  to  be  summoned  to  Shrewsbury  all  his  earls 
and  his  barons  and  his  other  knights,  that  on  a  certain 
day  they  should  be  at  Shrewsbury  with  all  their 
followers.  And  when  they  were  come  to  Shrewsbury, 
Lewis  was  warned  of  his  friends  that  King  John 
would  stir  up  much  strife  against  him,  and  he  called 
Fulk,  and  showed  unto  him  all  the  matter.  And  Fulk 
caused  to  assemble  at  the  Castle  Balaham,  in  Pentlyn, 
thirty  thousand  good  men,  and  Gwenwynwyn,  the 
son  of  Owen,  came  with  his  men,  who  were  strong  and 
bold.  And  Fulk  was  well  skilled  in  war,  and  he  knew 
well  all  the  paths  by  the  which  King  John  must  needs 
pass.  And  the  way  was  very  narrow,  and  it  was 
bounded  by  woods  and  by  marsh.  And  he  could  not 
pass  save  by  the  highway.  And  the  way  is  called  the 
Ford  of  Gymele.  And  Fulk  and  Gwenwynwyn  and 
their  men  came  to  the  pass,  and  they  caused  a  deep 
md  broad  ditch  to  be  digged  across  the  highway;  and 
hey  made  the  ditch  to  be  filled  with  water,  so  that, 
Because  of  the  ditch  and  the  marsh,  none  could  pass 
»y.  And  beyond  the  ditch  they  set  up  a  pale  very 
veil  fortified,  and  the  ditch  may  still  be  seen. 

And  then  came  King  John  with  all  his  host  to  the 

ord,  and  he  thought  to  pass  in  safety.     And  on  the 

>ther  side  they  espied  more  than  ten  thousand  armed 


knights  who  guarded  the  passage.  And  Fulk  and  his 
comrades  had  passed  the  ford  by  a  privy  path  the 
which  they  had  made,  and  they  were  on  that  side 
where  was  the  King,  and  Gwenwynwyn  and  many 
other  knights  with  them.  And  the  King  pointed  out 
Fulk,  and  the  knights  of  the  King  assailed  Fulk  on  all 
sides,  but  much  to  their  hurt  was  it  that  they  could 
not  come  at  him  save  in  front  by  the  causey.  And 
Fulk  and  his  comrades  defended  them  like  lions,  and 
ofttimes  were  they  unhorsed,  and  ofttimes  re- 
mounted. And  many  of  the  knights  of  the  King  were 
slain,  and  Gwenwynwyn  was  sorely  wounded  in  the 
head  through  his  helm.  And  when  Fulk  saw  that 
no  longer  could  he  and  his  men  hold  their  ground 
without  the  ditch,  then  they  returned  by  the  privy 
path,  and  defended  the  pale  and  the  ditch,  and  they 
let  fly  and  cast  quarrels  and  other  darts  upon  the 
King's  men,  and  they  slew  many,  and  wounded  people 
without  number.  And  this  fierce  and  hard  fight  endured 
till  even.  And  when  the  King  saw  so  many  of  his 
men  slain  and  wounded,  so  much  was  he  grieved,  that 
he  knew  not  what  to  do.  And  then  he  went  back  to 

And  King  John  was  a  man  without  conscience.     He 
w^s  wicked  and  perverse  and  wanton,  and  was  hated  of 

all  good  folk.  And  if  he  could  hear  of  any  fair  lady 
or  damsel,  wife  or  daughter  of  earl  or  of  baron,  or 
of  any  other,  he  desired  her  for  his  pleasure,  deceiving 
her  by  promises  or  by  gifts,  or  else  carrying  her  off  by 
force.  And  for  that  he  was  most  hated,  and  by  reason 
of  this  many  of  the  great  lords  of  England  had  re- 
nounced their  homage  to  the  King,  and  because  of 
this  the  King  was  the  less  feared. 

And  John  Lestrange,  lord  of  Knokyn  and  of  Ruton, 
held  always  with  the  King,  and  did  hurt  to  the 
Prince's  men.  And  for  this  the  Prince  caused  the 
castle  of  Ruton  to  be  demolished,  and  he  took  and 
imprisoned  his  men,  at  the  which  John  was  sore  vexed. 
And  the  Prince  came  to  the  Castle  Balaham,  and 
called  Fulk,  and  gave  and  restored  unto  him  all 
White  Town,  his  heritage,  and  Estrat  and  Dinorben. 
And  Fulk  thanked  him  greatly,  and  he  took  those  he 
would,  and  went  to  White  Town,  and  he  caused  the 
castle  to  be  fortified,  and  everywhere  repaired. 

And  John  Lestrange  went  to  the  King,  and  told 
unto  him  how  that  Fulk  had  caused  him  great  loss  of 
his  men,  and  had  destroyed  his  castle  of  Ruton,  and 
he  besought  of  the  King  (for  he  was  in  favour  with 
him)  that  he  would  aid  him  with  his  forces,  and  would 
avenge  him  right  well  of  Sir  Fulk  and  his  men.  And 

the  King  called  Sir  Henry  de  Audley,  who  was  lord 
of  Red  Castle  and  of  its  fiefs,  and  was  the  first  to  come 
by  it,  and  he  commanded  him  to  take  ten  thousand 
knights  of  the  most  valiant  in  England,  and  that  in  all 
things  he  and  his  knights  should  be  obedient  unto 
Sir  John  Lestrange.  And  Sir  Henry  and  Sir  John 
and  their  knights  set  out  for  White  Town,  and  they 
slew  by  the  way  all  they  found,  men  and  women,  and 
they  pillaged  the  country.  And  everywhere  there 
was  lamentation.  And  Fulk  was  at  White  Town, 
and  there  he  entertained  a  fair  company,  for  that  he 
was  but  now  entered  into  possession  of  his  lands. 
And  there  were  there  from  Wales  seven  hundred 
knights  and  many  fighting-men.  And  when  the  news 
came  to  Fulk  that  Sir  John  and  Sir  Henry  were 
coming  nigh  unto  those  parts,  forthwith  they  armed 
themselves,  and  went  privily  to  the  pass  of  Mudle. 
And  when  Sir  John  saw  Sir  Fulk,  he  spurred  his  steed, 
and  he  struck  Sir  Fulk  with  his  lance,  and  it  flew  into 
small  pieces.  And  Fulk  struck  Sir  John  back  in  the 
middle  of  his  face,  through  his  helm,  and  the  cut  was 
to  be  seen  all  his  life,  and  Sir  John  fell  all  flat  on  the 
earth.  And  Sir  John  was  very  valiant,  and  he  sprang 
up  quickly  on  to  his  feet,  and  he  cried  out  in  a  loud 
voice,  "  Now,  Sir  Knights,  all  at  Fulk  !  "  And  Fulk 

made  answer  fiercely,  "  Certes,"  said  he,  "  and  Fulk 
at  all !  "  Then  the  knights  on  both  sides  hurtled 
together.  And  many  did  Fulk  and  Sir  Thomas  Corbet 
and  his  other  comrades  slay.  And  Alan  Fitz-Warine, 
and  Philip  his  brother,  were  wounded.  And  when 
Fulk  saw  his  brothers  wounded,  he  was  nigh  mad  with 
rage.  And  Fulk  put  himself  in  the  thick  of  the  fight, 
and  whomsoever  he  reached  could  have  no  delivery 
from  death.  And  that  day  Sir  Fulk  had  but  seven 
hundred  knights,  and  the  others  were  ten  thousand 
and  more.  And  because  of  this,  Fulk  could  not 
prevail  in  the  battle,  so  he  retreated  to  White  Town. 
And  Sir  Audulf  de  Bracy  was  unhorsed  in  the  thick  of 
the  fight,  and  he  defended  himself  very  bravely,  but 
ere  long  he  was  taken,  and  was  led  to  Shrewsbury. 
And  much  did  Sir  Henry  and  Sir  John  rejoice  at  the 
capture,  and  they  came  to  Shrewsbury  into  the 
presence  of  the  King,  and  they  gave  up  Sir  Audulf  to 
the  King,  who  spake  to  him  very  fiercely,  and  he  swore 
a  great  oath  that  he  would  have  him  drawn  and  hanged 
by  cause  that  he  was  a  traitor  and  a  robber,  and  had 
slain  his  knights,  and  burnt  his  cities,  and  destroyed 
his  castles.  And  boldly  did  Audulf  make  answer  unto 
him,  and  said  that  never  was  he  a  traitor,  nor  any  of 
his  lineage.  And  Fulk  was  at  White  Town,  and  he 

caused  his  brothers  and  his  other  men  to  be  washed, 
and  their  wounds  to  be  dressed.  And  then  he  be- 
thought him  of  Sir  Audulf,  and  caused  him  to  be 
sought  for  everywhere,  and  when  that  he  could  not  be 
found,  he  thought  never  to  see  him  more,  and  he 
made  such  great  dole,  that  none  could  do  more. 
And  then  John  de  Rampaigne  came,  and  saw  Fulk 
making  such  dole.  "  Sire,"  said  he,  "  forbear  this 
mourning,  and,  if  it  please  God,  before  prime  on  the 
morrow  you  shall  have  good  news  of  Sir  Audulf  de 
Bracy,  for  I  myself  will  go  speak  with  the  King." 

And  John  de  Rampaigne  knew  well  the  tabor,  the 
harp,  the  viol,  the  citole,  and  jugglery,  and  he  attired 
himself  very  richly,  like  unto  some  earl  or  baron. 
And  he  caused  his  hair  and  all  his  body  to  be  dyed  as 
black  as  jet,  so  that  naught  was  white  save  his  teeth. 
And  he  hung  around  his  neck  a  very  fair  tabor,  and 
then  he  mounted  on  to  a  fair  palfrey,  and  rode  through 
the  town  of  Shrewsbury  unto  the  gate  of  the  castle, 
and  of  many  an  one  was  he  observed.  And  John 
came  before  the  King,  and  kneeled  down,  and  he 
saluted  the  King  much  courteously.  And  the  King 
returned  his  salutations,  and  asked  of  him  whence  he 
came.  "  Sire,"  said  he,  "  I  am  an  Ethiopian  minstrel, 
born  in  Ethiopia."  And  the  King  said,  "  Are  all  the 

folk  in  your  land  of  the  like  colour  ?  "  "  Aye,  my 
Lord,  both  men  and  women."  "  And  what  say  they 
of  me  in  foreign  lands  ?  "  "  Sire,"  said  he,  "  you  are 
the  most  renowned  King  in  all  Christendom,  and 
because  of  your  great  renown  am  I  come  to  see  you." 
"  Fair  Sir,"  said  the  King,  "  you  are  welcome." 
"  Sire,  my  Lord,  great  thanks."  And  John  said  that 
more  renowned  was  he  for  evil  than  for  good,  but  the 
King  heard  him  not. 

And  that  day  John  made  much  minstrelsy  with 
tabor  and  with  other  instruments.  And  when  that 
the  King  was  gone  to  bed,  Sir  Henry  de  Audley  sent 
for  the  black  minstrel,  and  led  him  into  his  chamber. 
And  they  made  much  melody.  And  when  that  Sir 
Henry  had  well  drunk,  he  said  to  a  valet,  "  Go  fetch 
Sir  Audulf  de  Bracy,  whom  the  King  purports  to  put 
to  death  on  the  morrow,  for  one  good  night  shall  he 
have  before  he  dies."  And  anon  the  valet  brought 
Sir  Audulf  into  the  chamber.  Then  they  talked,  and 
they  played,  and  John  commenced  a  song  which  Sir 
Audulf  aforetime  had  sung,  and  Sir  Audulf  raised 
his  head,  and  looked  him  in  the  face,  and  with  great 
difficulty  he  recognized  him.  And  Sir  Henry  called 
for  drink.  And  John  was  very  serviceable,  and  sprang 
up  quickly,  and  served  the  cup  before  them  all.  And 

John  was  cunning,  and  he  let  fall  a  powder  into  the 
cup,  the  which  was  perceived  of  none,  for  he  was  a 
good  juggler.  And  so  sleepy  did  all  who  drank 
become,  that  in  short  while  they  laid  them  down  to 
sleep.  And  when  all  were  asleep,  John  took  a  fool 
whom  the  King  had,  and  he  placed  him  betwixt  the 
two  knights  who  should  have  guarded  Sir  Audulf. 
And  John  and  Sir  Audulf  took  the  towels  and  the 
sheets  that  were  in  the  chamber,  and  they  escaped  by 
a  window  towards  Severn,  and  went  to  White  Town, 
the  which  was  twelve  leagues  from  Shrewsbury. 

But  not  longwhile  could  the  matter  be  hid,  where- 
fore on  the  morrow  the  whole  truth  was  told  unto 
the  King,  who  was  much  an  angered  at  the  escape. 
And  Fulk  arose  early  in  the  morning,  for  little  had  he 
slept  that  night.  And  he  looked  toward  Shrewsbury, 
and  he  saw  Sir  Audulf  and  John  coming.  And  it 
needs  not  to  ask  if  he  was  glad  when  he  saw  them. 
And  he  ran  to  them,  to  embrace  and  to  kiss  them. 
And  he  asked  of  them  the  news.  And  Sir  Audulf 
recounted  unto  him  how  that  John  had  acted,  and 
how  they  had  escaped.  And  then  Fulk,  who  tofore 
was  sad,  had  delight  and  great  joy. 

Now  let  us  leave  Fulk,  and  speak  of  Dame  Maude 
de  Caus. 


When  the  King,  who  had  so  much  desired  her, 
knew  of  a  truth  that  she  was  wedded  to  Sir  Fulk,  his 
enemy,  by  the  counsel  of  the  Archbishop  Hubert,  he 
did  great  wrong  to  the  archbishop  and  to  the  lady, 
for  he  thought  to  carry  her  off  by  force.  And  she 
fled  to  the  minster,  and  there  was  she  delivered  of  a 
daughter,  and  the  archbishop  baptized  her  Hawyse, 
and  after,  she  was  the  Lady  of  Wem. 

And  Fulk  and  his  companions  came  of  a  night  to 
Canterbury,  and  from  there  they  took  the  lady  to 
Huggeford,  and  there  she  remained  some  time.  And 
afterward  it  came  to  pass  that  the  lady  was  with  child, 
and  she  was  dwelling  privily  at  Alberbury.  And  the 
King  caused  her  to  be  espied  upon,  and  she  went 
secretly  thence  to  Shrewsbury,  and  there  she  was 
espied  upon,  and  so  great  was  she  with  child,  that  she 
could  not  journey  thence.  And  she  fled  to  the 
church  of  Our  Lady  at  Shrewsbury,  and  there  she  was 
delivered  of  a  daughter,  who  was  baptized  Joan,  and 
after  wedded  Sir  Henry  de  Pembridge.  And  after- 
ward Maude  had  a  son  who  was  born  on  a  mountain 
in  Wales,  and  was  baptized  John  in  a  brook  that 
comes  from  the  maiden's  well.  And  the  lady  and 
the  child  were  very  weak,  for  the  child  was  born  two 
months  before  its  term.  And  when  the  child  was 

confirmed  of  the  bishop,  he  was  called  Fulk.  And 
the  lady  and  the  child,  who  were  weak,  were  carried 
from  the  mountain  to  a  grange,  the  which  was  that 
of  Carreganant. 

And  when  the  King  could  in  nowise  avenge  himself 
of  Fulk,  nor  put  the  lady  to  shame  nor  seize  her,  then 
he  sent  a  letter  to  Prince  Lewis,  who  had  wedded 
Joan,  his  sister,  and  prayed  of  him  that  of  his  love  he 
would  banish  from  his  household  his  mortal  enemy 
and  a  felon,  (the  which  was  Fulk,)  and  he  would 
restore  unto  him  all  the  lands  which  ever  his  ancestors 
had  taken  from  his  seigniory,  on  condition  that  he 
should  possess  him  of  the  body  of  Fulk.  And  the 
Prince  called  into  his  chamber  his  wife  Joan,  and  he 
shewed  unto  her  the  letter  which  the  King,  her  brother, 
had  sent  unto  him.  And  when  the  lady  had  heard 
the  letter,  she  privily  sent  to  Sir  Fulk  all  the  tenor 
of  it,  and  that  the  King  desired  to  come  to  terms  with 
her  lord. 

And  when  that  Fulk  heard  the  news,  he  was  sore 
grieved,  and  he  had  fear  of  treason,  and  privily  he  sent 
Dame  Maude  with  Baldwin  de  Hodnet  to  the  Bishop 
of  Canterbury,  and  he  appointed  for  Baldwin  to  come 
to  him  at  Dover.  And  Fulk,  and  his  four  brothers, 
and  Audulf,  and  John  de  Rampaigne,  armed  them- 

selves  in  haste,  and  with  their  other  men  they  came 
unto  the  castle  of  Balaham,  before  the  Prince.  "Sire," 
said  Fulk,  "loyally  have  I  served  you  to  my  power,  but 
now,  Sire,  one  knows  not  in  whom  to  put  trust,  for, 
because  of  the  great  promise  of  the  King,  you  would 
desert  me.  And  the  King  has  sent  unto  you  a  letter, 
the  which,  Sire,  you  have  hidden  from  me.  There- 
fore, Sire,  I  fear  me  the  more."  "  Fulk,"  said  the 
Prince,  "remain  with  me,  for,  truly,  I  have  not  thought 
to  be  treacherous  unto  you."  "  Certes,  Sire,"  said 
Fulk,  "  I  believe  it  right  well,  but,  Sire,  in  nowise 
will  I  remain."  And  he  took  his  leave  of  the  Prince, 
and  of  all  his  companions.  And  he  journeyed  thence 
by  night  and  by  day  until  that  he  was  come  to  Dover, 
and  there  he  met  Baldwin,  who  had  escorted  the 
lady  to  the  archbishop.  And  they  put  out  to  sea, 
and  came  to  Whitsand. 

And  when  that  Fulk  and  his  brothers  and  his  other 
comrades  were  come  to  Paris,  they  saw  King  Philip 
of  France,  who  was  come  into  the  meadows  for  to  see 
his  knights  joust.  And  as  yet  Fulk  spake  not,  and 
his  comrades  likewise.  But  when  they  saw  so  fair  an 
assemblage,  then  they  remained  to  see  the  jousts. 
And  when  the  French  saw  the  English  knights,  much 
the  more  did  they  labour  to  do  well.  Then  Sir  Druz 

de  Montbener,  a  very  proud  Frenchman,  sent  to 
Sir  Fulk,  and  he  prayed  of  him  to  joust  with  him,  and 
forthwith  Fulk  granted  unto  him  his  request.  And 
Fulk  and  his  brothers  armed  them,  and  they  mounted 
on  to  their  good  steeds.  And  John  de  Rampaigne 
was  very  richly  attired,  and  well  mounted,  and  he  had 
a  very  fine  tabor,  and  he  struck  the  tabor  as  he  entered 
the  lists,  and  the  hills  and  the  valleys  rang  again,  and 
the  horses  became  lively.  And  when  the  King  saw 
Fulk  armed,  he  said  to  Sir  Druz  de  Montbener, 
"  Have  good  care,  for  very  clear  is  it  that  this  English 
knight  is  very  skilful  and  valiant."  "  Sire,"  said  he, 
"  no  knight  is  there  in  all  the  world  that  I  dare  not 
encounter  hand  to  hand,  on  horseback  or  afoot." 
"  God  be  with  you,"  said  the  King.  And  Fulk  and 
Sir  Druz  spurred  their  steeds,  and  encountered  one 
another.  And  Fulk  struck  him  with  his  lance  through 
the  middle  of  his  shield,  and  pierced  his  good  hauberk, 
and  through  the  middle  of  his  shoulder,  and  the  lance 
flew  in  pieces.  And  Sir  Druz  fell  all  flat  on  the  ground. 
And  Fulk  took  the  horse  of  Sir  Druz,  and  he  led  it 
away,  and  sent  it  as  a  gift  to  Sir  Druz,  for  no  wish  had 
Sir  Fulk  to  keep  the  horse. 

And  after  that,  there  came  a  French  knight  who 
would  avenge  Sir  Druz,  and  he  struck  Fulk  with  his 

lance  in  the  middle  of  his  shield,  and  his  lance  brake 
And  Fulk  struck  him  back  on  the  middle  of  his  helm, 
and  his  lance  was  all  splintered.  And  the  knight  was 
unhorsed,  whether  he  would  or  not.  And  the  brothers 
of  Fulk  and  his  companions  were  ready  to  joust,  but 
the  King  would  not  suffer  them.  And  the  King  hasted 
to  Fulk,  and  said  to  him,  "  God  bless  you,  English 
knight,  for  right  well  have  you  done."  And  he 
prayed  of  him  that  he  would  sojourn  with  him.  And 
Fulk  gave  the  King  much  thanks,  and  granted  unto 
him  that  it  should  be  as  he  desired.  And  that  day 
was  Fulk  observed  of  many,  and  was  praised  and 
commended  in  all  things.  And  such  grace  had  Fulk, 
that  he  never  came  to  any  place  where  was  courage,  or 
knighthood,  or  prowess,  or  goodness,  that  he  was  not 
held  for  the  best,  and  without  peer. 

And  Fulk  sojourned  with  King  Philip  of  France, 
and  he  was  loved  and  honoured  of  the  King  and  the 
Queen,  and  of  all  good  folk.  And  the  King  asked  of 
him  his  name.  And  Fulk  said  that  he  was  called 
Amis  du  Bois.  "  Sir  Amis,"  said  the  King,  "  know 
you  Fulk  Fitz-Warine,  of  whom  everywhere  much 
good  is  spoken  ?  "  "  Aye,  Sire,"  said  he,  "  oft  have 
I  seen  him."  "  Of  what  stature  is  he  ?  "  "  In  my 
estimation,  Sire,  of  like  stature  with  myself."  And 

the  King  said,  "  This  may  well  be,  for  you  are  both 
valiant."  And  no  tournament  or  joust  in  all  France 
could  Fulk  hear  of,  but  he  would  be  there,  and  every- 
where he  was  esteemed  and  loved  and  honoured 
because  of  his  prowess  and  his  generosity. 

And  when  that  the  King  of  England  knew  that 
Sir  Fulk  was  dwelling  with  King  Philip  of  France,  he 
sent  unto  the  King,  and  prayed  of  him,  if  so  it  pleased 
him,  that  he  would  banish  from  his  household,  and 
from  his  retinue,  Fulk  Fitz-Warine,  his  mortal  enemy. 
And  when  the  King  of  France  had  heard  the  letter, 
he  declared  by  St.  Denis  that  no  such  knight  was  in 
his  retinue,  and  such  answer  sent  he  to  the  King  of 
England.     And  when  Fulk  had  heard  this  news,  he 
went  to  the  King  of  France,  and  craved  leave  to 
depart.     And  the  King  said,   "  Tell  me  if  there  is 
aught  wanting  unto  you,  and  ample  amends  will 
have  made  of  that  for  the  which  you  would  leave  me/ 
"  Sire,"  said  he,  "  such  tidings  have  I  heard  as  com] 
me  to  depart."     And  from  this  did  the  King  under- 
stand   that    he    was    Fulk.     And    the     King    saic 
"  Sir  Amis  du  Bois,  I  trow  that  you  are  Fulk  Fitz- 
Warine."     "  Of  a  truth,  my  Lord,  that  am  I."     Am 
the  King  said,  "  You  shall  remain  with  me,  and  richer 
lands  will  I  give  unto  you  than  ever  you  had  ii 

England."  "  Certes,  Sire,"  said  he,  "  unworthy  is 
he  to  receive  lands  as  the  gift  of  another,  who  is  unable 
to  hold  as  of  right  those  which  are  his  by  lawful 

And  Fulk  took  his  leave  of  the  King,  and  came  to 
the  sea,  and  he  saw  the  ships  afloat  on  the  sea,  and 
there  was  no  wind  towards  England,  but  the  weather 
was  fair  enough.  And  Fulk  saw  a  mariner  who 
seemed  hardy  and  daring,  and  he  called  unto  him, 
and  said,  "  Fair  Sir,  is  this  ship  yours  ?  "  "  Aye, 
Sire,"  said  he.  "  What  is  your  name  ?  "  "  Sire," 
said  he,  "  Mador  of  the  Mount  of  Russia,  where  I 
was  born."  "  Mador,"  said  Fulk,  "  know  you  well 
this  business,  and  how  to  carry  folk  by  sea  to  divers 
regions  ?  "  "  Certes,  Sire,  no  land  of  renown  is 
there  in  all  Christendom  whither  I  know  not  how  to 
conduct  a  ship  well  and  safely."  "  Forsooth,"  said 
Fulk,  "  yours  is  a  very  perilous  calling.  Tell  me, 
Mador,  fair  sweet  brother,  by  what  death  did  your 
father  die  ?  "  And  Mador  made  answer  unto  him 
that  he  was  drowned  in  the  sea.  "  And  your  grand- 
father ?  "  "  He  likewise."  "  And  your  great-grand- 
father ?  "  "  In  the  same  manner,  and  all  my  kinsfolk 
that  I  know  of,  to  the  fourth  degree."  "  Of  a  truth," 
said  Fulk,  "  very  foolhardy  are  you  that  you  dare  go 
81  c 

to  sea."  "  Wherefore,  Sire  ?  "  said  he.  "  Every  one 
will  die  the  death  that  is  destined  for  him."  "  Sire," 
said  Mador,  "  if  so  it  pleases  you,  answer  my  question. 
Where  did  your  father  die  ?  "  "  Certes,  in  his  bed." 
"  And  where  your  grandfather  ?  "  "  He  likewise." 
"  And  your  great-grandfather  ?  "  "  Certes,  all  of 
my  lineage  that  I  know  of,  died  in  their  beds."  "  Of 
a  truth,  Sire,"  said  Mador,  "  since  all  your  lineage  died 
in  bed,  greatly  do  I  marvel  that  you  dare  enter  any 
bed."  And  then  Fulk  perceived  that  the  mariner 
had  said  truly  unto  him  that  every  one  shall  die  the 
death  that  is  destined  for  him,  and  he  knows  not  the 
which,  whether  on  land  or  at  sea. 

And  Fulk  spake  to  Mador,  who  knew  the  handling 
of  ships,  and  prayed  him  that  for  love,  and  for  reward, 
he  would  design  and  fit  out  a  ship,  and  he  would 
defray  the  charges.  And  to  this  did  Mador  agree. 
And  the  ship  was  built  in  a  forest  hard  by  the  sea, 
according  unto  the  design  of  Mador  in  all  things,  and 
so  good  and  plenteous  were  all  the  ropes  and  the  other 
fittings  that  appertained  to  it,  that  it  was  a  marvel, 
and  it  was  beyond  measure  well  victualled. 

And  Fulk  and  his  brothers  and  his  men  put  out  to 
sea,  and  they  drew  nigh  unto  England.  And  anon 
Mador  saw  a  ship  well  armed  coming  towards  them. 

And  when  the  ships  approached  unto  each  other,  a 
knight  spake  unto  Mador  and  said,  "  Master  mariner, 
to  whom  belongs  this  ship  the  which  you  govern,  for 
none  such  is  used  to  pass  here  ?  "  "  Sire,"  said 
Mador,  "  it  is  mine."  "  By  my  faith,"  said  the 
knight,  "  it  is  not.  You  are  robbers,  and  well  do  I 
know  it  by  the  quarterings  on  the  sail,  which  are  the 
arms  of  Fulk  Fitz-Warine,  and  he  is  in  the  ship,  and 
this  day  will  I  deliver  up  his  body  to  King  John." 
"  By  my  faith,"  said  Fulk,  "  that  will  you  not,  but 
if  you  desire  aught  of  us,  willingly  shall  you  have  it." 
"  I  will  have  you  all,"  said  he,  "  and  all  you  have,  in 
despite  of  you."  "  By  my  faith,"  said  Fulk,  "  you 
lie."  And  Mador,  who  was  a  good  and  bold  mariner, 
let  his  ship  sail,  and  he  ran  right  through  the  middle 
of  the  other  ship,  so  that  the  sea  entered  into  it. 
And  thus  did  the  ship  perish,  but  first  many  a  hard 
blow  was  given.  And  when  the  ship  was  vanquished, 
Fulk  and  his  comrades  took  much  riches  and  victuals, 
and  they  carried  them  to  their  ship.  And  ere  long 
the  other  ship  perished  and  sank. 

And  all  that  whole  year  Fulk  remained  coasting 
England,  and  to  none  would  he  do  hurt  save  to  King 
John,  but  ofttimes  did  he  take  his  goods,  and  what- 
soever he  could  of  his.  And  Fulk  set  sail  towards 

Scotland,  and  ere  long  there  came  from  the  west  a 
wind  which  drave  them  three  days  from  Scotland. 
And  at  last  they  saw  an  island  the  which  was  very 
pleasant  and  fair  as  far  as  they  could  judge,  and  they 
sailed  towards  it,  and  found  a  good  port.  And  Fulk 
and  his  four  brothers,  and  Audulf,  and  Baldwin,  went 
ashore  to  survey  the  country,  and  to  victual  their  ship. 
And  ere  long  they  saw  a  lad  minding  sheep,  and  when 
he  saw  the  knights,  he  came  towards  them,  and 
saluted  them  in  a  corrupt  Latin.  And  Fulk  asked  of 
him  if  he  knew  of  any  meat  to  sell  in  the  country. 
"  Certes,  Sire,"  said  he,  "  no,  for  this  is  an  island  the 
which  is  inhabited  by  none  save  a  few,  and  these 
people  live  on  their  beasts.  But  if  an  it  please  you  to 
come  with  me,  willingly  shall  you  have  such  meat  as  I 
have."  And  Fulk  thanked  him,  and  went  with  him, 
and  theyouth  led  them  into  a  cavern  beneath  the  earth, 
the  which  was  very  fair,  and  he  made  them  to  be 
seated,  and  received  them  very  kindly.  "  Sire,"  said 
the  lad,  "  I  have  a  serving-man  in  the  mountain. 
Be  not  disquieted  if  that  I  sound  the  horn  for  him, 
and  soon  shall  we  eat."  "  In  God's  name,"  said  Fulk. 
And  the  lad  went  without  the  cavern,  and  sounded 
six  blasts,  and  then  he  returned  to  the  cavern. 
And  anon  there  came  six  great  and  tall  and  fierce 

villains,  clad  in  coarse  and  ill-favoured  tabards,  and 
each  had  in  his  hand  a  great  staff,  hard  and  strong. 
And  when  Fulk  saw  them,  he  had  suspicion  of  evil 
design.  And  the  six  villains  entered  a  chamber,  and 
they  put  off  their  tabards,  and  dressed  them  in  a 
green  stuff,  and  shoes  broidered  with  gold,  and  in  all 
things  they  were  as  richly  attired  as  any  king  could  be. 
And  they  came  back  to  the  hall,  and  saluted  Sir  Fulk 
and  his  companions,  and  they  asked  of  them  to  play 
the  chess  with  them,  and  there  was  brought  to  them 
a  very  rich  chessboard,  with  chessmen  in  fine  gold  and 
silver.  And  Sir  William  played  a  game,  but  soon  did 
he  lose  it.  And  Sir  John  played  another,  and  quickly 
was  it  lost.  And  Philip,  and  Alan,  and  Baldwin,  and 
Audulf,  one  after  the  other,  played  a  game,  and  each 
one  lost  his.  Then  said  one  of  the  fiercest  of  the 
shepherds  to  Fulk,  "  Will  you  play  ?  "  "  No,"  said 
he.  "  By  my  faith,"  said  the  shepherd,  "  you  shall 
play  or  wrestle  in  spite  of  yourself."  "  By  my  faith, 
wretched  villain  of  a  shepherd,"  said  Fulk,  "  in  that 
do  you  lie,  but  if  so  it  be  that  I  must  wrestle  or  play 
in  spite  of  myself,  I  will  play  with  you  after  the  manner 
that  I  have  learnt."  And  he  sprang  up,  and  drew  his 
sword,  and  struck  him  so  that  his  head  flew  into  the 
midst  of  the  place,  and  then  another,  and  then  a  third, 

until  that  Fulk  and  his  comrades  had  slain  all  the  vile 

And  Fulk  entered  into  a  chamber,  and  there  he 
found  an  old  woman  seated.  And  in  her  hand  she 
had  a  horn,  and  oft  did  she  put  it  to  her  mouth,  but 
in  nowise  could  she  sound  it.  And  when  she  saw 
Fulk,  she  cried  him  mercy ;  and  he  asked  of  her  what 
use  the  horn  would  be  if  that  she  could  sound  it. 
And  the  old  woman  said  to  him  that  if  the  horn  was 
sounded,  succour  would  come  to  her  in  plenty. 
And  Fulk  took  the  horn,  and  entered  into  another 
chamber,  and  there  he  saw  seven  damsels  who  were 
fair  beyond  measure.  And  they  were  garmented 
very  richly,  and  did  very  rich  work.  And  when  they 
saw  Fulk,  they  fell  on  their  knees,  and  prayed  him 
mercy.  And  Fulk  asked  of  them  who  they  were. 
And  one  of  them  said  to  him,  "  Sire,  I  am  the  daughter 
of  Aunflorreis  of  Orkney,  and  whilst  that  my  lord  was 
dwelling  in  his  castle  in  Orkney,  the  which  is  called 
Castle  Bagot,  and  is  on  the  sea,  beside  a  very  fair 
forest,  it  chanced  that  I  and  these  damsels,  and  four 
knights  and  others,  entered  a  boat  on  the  sea,  and 
went  to  disport  ourselves.  And  ere  long  there  came 
upon  us  in  a  ship,  with  their  company,  the  seven 
sons  of  the  old  woman  within,  and  they  slew  all  our 

men,  and  brought  us  hither,  and,  against  our  wills, 
as  God  knows,  they  have  dishonoured  our  bodies, 
wherefore  we  pray  of  you,  in  the  name  of  God  in 
whom  you  believe,  that  you  aid  us  in  this  captivity,  if 
so  it  be  that  you  can  escape  hence,  for  well  do  I  see,  by 
your  look,  that  you  are  not  dwellers  in  this  country." 
And  Fulk  comforted  the  damsels,  and  said  that  he 
would  aid  them  to  his  power.  And  Fulk  and  his 
companions  found  much  riches  and  victuals  and 
armour.  And  there  Fulk  found  the  haubergeon  the 
which  he  held  of  so  great  worth,  and  which  he  much 
prized,  and  was  wont  to  use  hidden,  and  which,  in 
all  his  life,  he  would  neither  sell,  nor  give  away  in 
exchange  for  aught. 

And  Fulk  furnished  his  ship  plenteously,  and  he 
took  the  damsels  to  his  ship,  and  set  them  at  their 
ease  all  he  could.  And  then  he  commanded  all  his 
men  that  they  should  arm  themselves  in  haste.  And 
when  all  were  armed  according  to  their  fancy,  then 
Fulk  raised  the  hue  and  cry  with  the  little  horn  the 
which  he  had  taken  from  the  old  woman,  and  there 
came  running  over  the  fields  more  than  two  hundred 
of  the  thieves  of  the  country.  And  Fulk  and  his 
company  set  upon  them,  and  they  defended  themselves 
with  vigour.  And  there  were  slain  of  the  robbers 

and  thieves  more  than  two  hundred,  and  none  were 
there  in  all  that  island  save  only  robbers  and  thieves, 
who  were  wont  to  slay  all  they  could  come  at,  or  take 
at  sea. 

And  Fulk  asked  of  Mador  if  he  knew  how  to  bring 
him  by  sea  to  the  realm  the  which  is  called  Orkney. 
"  Yea,  forsooth,"  said  he.  "  It  is  but  an  isle,  and 
the  Castle  Bagot  is  very  nigh  unto  the  port."  And 
Fulk  said,  "  At  this  castle  would  I  be."  "  Sire,  this 
day  shall  you  be  there."  And  when  that  Fulk  was 
arrived,  then  he  asked  of  the  damsels  if  they  had 
knowledge  of  the  country.  "  Certes,  Sire,"  said  one. 
"  It  is  the  realm  of  Aunflorreis,  my  father."  And 
Fulk  came  to  the  castle,  and  he  restored  unto  the 
King  his  daughter  and  the  damsels.  And  he  received 
them  with  great  honour,  and  gave  rich  gifts  unto  Fulk. 

And  so  far  had  Fulk  sailed  for  to  see  marvels  and 
adventures,  that  he  had  environed  the  seven  isles  of 
the  ocean,  Brittany,  and  Ireland,  and  Gothland,  and 
Norway,  and  Denmark,  and  Orkney,  and  Scandinavia. 
And  in  Scandinavia  there  dwells  no  man,  but  only 
serpents  and  other  foul  beasts.  And  there  Fulk  saw 
horned  serpents,  and  the  horns  were  very  pointed. 
And  they  had  four  feet,  and  flew  like  unto  birds. 
And  such  an  one  assailed  Fulk,  and  struck  him  with 

his  horn,  and  pierced  his  shield  through  the  middle. 
And  Fulk  marvelled  much  at  the  blow,  and  he  per- 
ceived very  well  that  when  the  serpent  struck  him 
through  the  shield,  it  could  not  quickly  withdraw  its 
horn.  And  Fulk  stabbed  it  through  the  heart  with 
his  sword.  Then  Fulk  saw  a  venomous  beast  which 
had  the  head  of  a  mastiff,  a  thick  beard  like  unto 
a  goat,  and  ears  like  unto  a  hare,  and  many  other 
beasts  which  St.  Patrick  had  driven  out  of  Ireland, 
and,  by  the  power  of  God,  had  confined  here,  for 
the  good  man,  St.  Patrick,  was  in  favour  with  him. 
And  now  does  no  venomous  beast  inhabit  the  land 
of  Ireland,  save  only  lizards  without  tails. 

And  Fulk  sailed  towards  the  north  over  the  ocean, 
beyond  Orkney,  and  he  found  such  cold  and  ice,  that 
none  could  endure  the  cold,  and  because  of  the  ice, 
the  ship  could  not  go  forward  in  the  sea.  And  Fulk 
turned  him  back  towards  England.  And  ere  long 
there  arose  a  very  fearful  tempest,  by  the  which  all 
thought  to  perish,  and  they  devoutly  cried  to  God 
and  to  St.  Clement  to  be  delivered  from  the  storm. 
And  this  tempest  endured  fifteen  days.  And  then  they 
saw  land,  but  they  knew  not  what  land  it  was.  And 
Fulk  went  ashore,  and  saw  a  very  fair  castle.  And  he 
entered  into  the  castle,  for  the  gate  was  ajar,  and  no 

living  man  or  beast  did  he  find  within,  or  any  in  all 
the  country.  And  much  did  he  marvel  that  none 
should  dwell  in  so  fair  a  place.  And  he  returned  to 
his  ship,  and  told  of  it  to  his  company.  "  Sire,"  said 
Mador,  "  let  us  leave  the  ship  here,  and  let  us  all  go 
ashore,  save  those  who  shall  guard  our  victuals,  and 
perchance  we  shall  soon  hear  from  some  one  the  state 
of  this  country."  And  when  they  were  come  to 
shore,  they  met  a  peasant.  And  Mador  asked  of  him 
what  land  it  was,  and  how  it  was  called,  and  wherefore 
it  was  not  inhabited.  And  the  peasant  said,  "  This 
is  the  kingdom  of  Iberia,  and  the  country  is  called 
Carthage.  And  this  castle  belongs  to  the  Duke  of 
Carthage,  who  holds  it  of  the  King  of  Iberia.  And 
this  duke  had  a  daughter,  the  fairest  maiden  who  was 
known  in  the  kingdom  of  Iberia.  And  this  damsel 
ascended  one  day  the  chief  tower  of  the  castle.  And 
there  came  a  flying  dragon,  and  he  took  the  damsel, 
and  carried  her  to  a  high  mountain  in  the  sea,  and 
there  he  ate  her.  And  this  dragon  has  slain  and 
destroyed  all  in  this  land,  so  that  no  one  dares  dwell 
in  the  country,  nor  does  the  duke  dare  enter  the 
castle,  so  horrible  is  the  dragon." 
t  And  Fulk  returned  to  his  galley,  and  he  sailed  on 
his  way.  Then  they  saw  a  great  mountain  in  the  sea. 

"  Sire,"  said  Mador,  "  this  is  the  mountain  where 
dwells  the  dragon.  Now  are  we  all  in  great  peril  !  " 
"  Hold  your  peace,"  said  Fulk.  "  As  yet  you  see 
naught  but  what  is  fair.  Would  you  die  of  fear, 
Master  Mador  ?  Many  dragons  have  we  seen,  and 
well  has  God  delivered  us  from  peril.  Never  yet 
have  we  been  in  peril,  but  that,  by  the  mercy  of  God, 
we  have  well  escaped.  Your  cold  comfort  would  put 
a  coward  to  death." 

And  Fulk  took  Audulf  de  Bracy,  and  step  by  step 
he  ascended  the  mountain,  the  which  was  very  high. 
And  when  they  were  come  to  the  summit  of  the 
mountain,  they  saw  lying  there  many  good  hauberks, 
and  helms,  and  swords,  and  other  arms,  but,  besides 
the  arms,  naught  did  they  see  save  the  bones  of  men. 
And  they  saw  a  large  and  fair  tree,  and  a  spring 
beneath  it,  running  with  water  fair  and  clear.  And 
Fulk  looked  around  him,  and  saw  a  hollow  rock. 
And  he  raised  his  right  arm,  and  crossed  him  in  the 
name  of  the  Father,  and  of  the  Son,  and  of  the  Holy 
Ghost,  and  he  drew  his  sword,  and  entered  with  much 
boldness,  as  one  who  put  his  whole  trust  in  God. 

And  he  saw  a  very  fair  damsel  weeping  and  making 
great  dole.  And  Fulk  asked  of  her  whence  she  was. 
"  Sire,"  said  she,  "  I  am  daughter  to  the  Duke  of 

Carthage,  and  I  have  been  here  seven  years.  And 
never  have  I  seen  a  Christian  here  who  came  not 
against  his  will,  and,  for  God's  sake,  go  away  hence  if 
you  are  able,  for  if  the  dragon  come  from  within, 
never  will  you  escape."  "  Certes,"  said  Fulk,  "  never 
will  I  go  until  I  have  heard  and  seen  more."  "  Dam- 
sel," said  Fulk,  "  what  does  the  dragon  with  you  ? 
Does  he  no  harm  to  you  ?  "  "  Sire,"  said  she,  "  the 
dragon  is  fierce  and  strong,  and  he  would  carry  an 
armed  knight  to  these  mountains  if  he  but  got  him  in 
his  claws,  and  many  an  one  has  he  brought  hither  and 
devoured,  whose  bones  you  may  see  outside,  and 
human  flesh  does  he  love  more  than  any  other.  And 
when  his  hideous  face  and  beard  are  covered  with 
blood,  then  he  comes  to  me,  and  makes  me  to  wash 
his  face,  and  his  beard,  and  his  breast,  with  clear 
water.  And  when  he  would  sleep,  he  goes  to  his 
couch,  which  is  all  of  fine  gold,  for  such  is  his  nature, 
that  beyond  measure  is  he  very  hot,  and  gold  is  by 
nature  very  cold,  and,  to  cool  himself,  he  lies  on  gold. 
And  when  he  goes  to  his  couch,  he  takes  a  great  stone, 
such  as  you  may  see  there,  and  he  puts  it  before  the 
door,  for  fear  of  me,  lest  I  should  slay  him  as  he  sleeps, 
for  he  has  the  sense  of  man,  and  greatly  does  he  fear 
me.  But  well  I  know  that  in  the  end  he  will  slay  me." 

"  By  God,"  said  Fulk,  "  if  so  it  please  God,  that  shall 
he  not." 

And  Fulk  took  the  damsel,  and  gave  her  into  the 
keeping  of  Sir  Audulf,  and  they  came  forth  from  the 
rock.  And  scarce  were  they  come  forth,  when  they 
saw  the  dragon  flying  in  the  air  towards  them.  And 
from  its  mouth,  which  was  glowing,  it  cast  forth 
smoke  and  flames  most  horrible.  And  it  was  a  very 
foul  beast,  and  it  had  a  great  head,  and  square  teeth, 
and  sharp  claws,  and  a  long  tail.  And  when  that  the 
dragon  saw  Fulk,  forthwith  it  struck  at  him,  and  in  its 
flight  it  struck  him  on  his  shield,  which  it  rent  in 
twain.  And  Fulk  raised  his  sword,  and  struck  the 
dragon  on  the  head  as  hard  as  he  was  able.  And  the 
blow  hurt  it  not  at  all,  nor  did  it  in  anywise  flinch 
under  it,  so  strong  were  its  scales  and  its  horns  in 
front.  And  the  dragon  took  its  flight  from  afar  for 
to  strike  hard.  And  Fulk,  who  could  not  withstand 
the  blow,  dodged  behind  the  tree  which  was  beyond 
the  spring.  And  Fulk  perceived  that  he  could  not 
hurt  the  dragon  in  front,  so  that  he  watched  for  the 
dragon's  return,  and  he  struck  it  with  vigour  in  the 
body  on  the  tail,  and  cut  it  in  twain.  And  the  dragon 
began  to  cry  out,  and  to  roar,  and  it  sprang  towards 
the  damsel,  for  it  would  take  her  and  carry  her  else- 

where.  And  Sir  Audulf  defended  her.  And  so 
tightly  did  the  dragon  seize  Sir  Audulf  in  its  claws, 
that  if  Fulk  had  not  come  in  great  haste,  it  would  have 
crushed  him.  Then  came  Fulk,  and  he  cut  off  its 
claw,  and  with  great  difficulty  did  he  deliver  Sir 
Audulf,  for  firmly  had  it  fixed  him  with  its  claw 
through  his  hauberk.  And  Fulk  struck  the  dragon 
in  the  mouth  with  his  sword,  and  in  such  manner  he 
slew  it. 

And  Fulk  was  very  weary,  and  he  reposed  him 
awhile,  and  then  he  went  to  the  bed  of  the  dragon, 
and  he  took  the  gold  which  he  found  there,  and  carried 
it  to  his  galley.  And  John  de  Rampaigne  examined 
the  wound  of  Sir  Audulf,  and  dressed  it,  for  he  knew 
much  of  medicines.  And  Mador  turned  his  ship 
towards  Carthage,  and  they  arrived  in  the  land,  and 
restored  his  daughter  to  the  duke,  who  was  very 
joyful  when  he  saw  her.  And  the  damsel  related  unto 
her  lord  the  life  she  had  led,  and  how  that  Fulk  had 
slain  the  dragon.  And  the  duke  fell  down  at  the 
feet  of  Fulk,  and  thanked  him  for  his  daughter,  and 
he  prayed  of  him,  if  it  pleased  him,  that  he  would 
dwell  in  the  country,  and  he  would  give  him  all 
Carthage,  and  his  daughter  in  marriage.  And  heartily 
did  Fulk  give  him  thanks  for  his  generous  offer,  and 

he  said  that  willingly  would  he  have  taken  his  daughter 
if  that  his  Christianity  had  suffered  it,  but  already  was 
he  wed.  And  this  said,  Fulk  sojourned  there  until 
that  Audulf  was  healed  of  his  wound,  and  then  he 
took  leave  of  the  duke,  who  was  much  grieved  at  his 
departure.  And  the  duke  gave  them  many  a  good 
and  fair  jewel,  and  very  fine  and  swift  steeds,  and  to 
each  one  he  gave  rich  gifts. 

And  Fulk  and  his  comrades  set  sail  towards  England. 
And  when  they  were  come  to  Dover,  they  went  ashore, 
and  they  left  Mador  and  the  ship  in  a  certain  place 
where  they  could  find  him  when  they  would.  And 
Fulk  and  his  comrades  had  learned  from  the  peasants 
that  King  John  was  at  Windsor,  and  they  set  out 
privily  on  their  way  towards  Windsor.  And  by  day 
they  slept  and  rested  them,  and  by  night  they  wan- 
dered on  until  they  were  come  to  the  forest,  and 
there  they  lodged  them  in  a  certain  place,  in  the 
forest  of  Windsor,  where  they  used  aforetime  to  be, 
for  Fulk  knew  all  parts  there.  Then  they  heard 
huntsmen,  and  the  men  with  the  hounds  to  blow  the 
horn,  and  by  this  they  knew  that  the  King  was  going 
to  hunt.  And  Fulk  and  his  companions  armed  them- 
selves very  richly.  And  Fulk  swore  a  great  oath  that 
he  would  not,  for  fear  of  death,  refrain  from  avenging 

himself  on  the  King,  who  wrongfully,  and  by  force, 
had  disinherited  him,  and  that  he  would  boldly 
challenge  his  rights  and  his  heritage.  And  Fulk 
caused  his  companions  to  remain  there,  and  he  himself, 
he  said,  would  go  to  spy  out  adventures. 

And  Fulk  went  on  his  way,  and  he  met  an  old 
charcoal-burner,  who  carried  a  sieve  in  his  hand,  and 
was  all  dressed  in  black,  as  a  charcoal-burner  should  be. 
And  Fulk  prayed  him  that  of  love  he  would  give  him 
his  clothes  and  his  sieve  for  money.  "  Willingly, 
Sire,"  said  he.  And  Fulk  gave  him  ten  besants,  and 
prayed  him  that,  for  love,  he  would  tell  of  it  to  no  one. 
And  the  charcoal-burner  went  on  his  way.  And 
Fulk  remained,  and  anon  he  dressed  himself  in  the 
attire  which  the  charcoal-burner  had  given  unto  him, 
and  he  went  to  the  charcoal,  and  began  to  stir  the  fire. 
And  Fulk  saw  a  large  iron  fork,  the  which  he  took  in 
his  hand,  and  he  arranged  here  and  there  the  pieces  of 
wood.  And  ere  long  there  came  the  King,  with  three 
knights,  all  afoot,  to  where  Fulk  was  arranging  his 
fire.  And  when  Fulk  saw  the  King,  right  well  he 
knew  him,  and  he  threw  down  the  fork,  and  saluted 
his  lord,  and  he  fell  on  his  knees  before  him  very 
humbly.  And  the  King  and  his  three  knights  laughed 
heartily,  and  they  made  game  of  the  breeding  and 

bearing  of  the  charcoal-burner,  and  longwhile  did 
they  remain  there.  "  Sir  Villain,"  said  the  King, 
"  have  you  seen  any  stag  or  doe  pass  by  here  ?  " 
"  Yea,  my  Lord,  a  while  ago."  "  What  beast  did  you 
see  ?  "  "  Sire,  my  Lord,  one  horned,  and  it  had  long 
horns."  "  Where  is  it  ?  "  "  Sire,  my  Lord,  right 
well  do  I  know  how  to  lead  you  to  where  I  saw  it." 
"  Forward,  then,  Sir  Villain,  and  we  will  follow  you." 
"  Sire,"  said  the  charcoal-burner,  "  shall  I  take  my 
fork  in  my  hand  ?  for  if  it  were  taken,  I  should  suffer 
great  loss  thereby."  "  Yea,  villain,  if  you  will." 
And  Fulk  took  the  great  fork  of  iron  in  his  hand,  and 
escorted  the  King  to  shoot,  as  though  he  had  a  very 
fine  bow.  "  Sire,  my  Lord,"  said  Fulk,  "  may  it  please 
you  to  wait,  and  I  will  go  into  the  thicket,  and  will 
make  the  beast  to  come  out  by  this  path  here."  "  Be 
it  so,"  said  the  King.  And  Fulk  sprang  hastily  into 
the  thick  of  the  forest,  and  he  commanded  his  com- 
pany to  seize  King  John  quickly,  "  for  I  have  brought 
him  here,  with  three  knights  only,  and  all  his  retinue 
is  on  the  other  side  of  the  forest."  And  Fulk  and  his 
company  leaped  out  of  the  thicket,  and  cried  upon 
the  King,  and  seized  him  forthwith.  "  Sir  King," 
said  Fulk,  "  now  I  have  you  in  my  power,  and  such 
judgment  will  I  mete  out  unto  you  as  you  would  have 
97  H 

done  unto  me  if  that  you  had  taken  me."  And  the 
King  trembled  with  fear,  for  he  had  great  dread  of 
Fulk.  And  Fulk  swore  that  he  should  die  for  the 
great  hurt  and  the  disinheriting  the  which  he  had  done 
unto  him,  and  unto  many  a  good  man  of  England. 
And  the  King  cried  him  mercy,  and  prayed  him  his 
life  for  the  love  of  God,  and  wholly  would  he  restore 
unto  him  all  his  heritage,  and  whatsoever  he  had 
taken  from  him  and  from  his  people,  and  he  would 
grant  unto  him  his  love  and  goodwill  all  his  days,  and 
of  this  he  would  give  him  in  all  things  such  surety  as 
it  pleased  him  to  devise.  And  Fulk  duly  granted 
unto  him  his  request  on  condition  that,  in  the  presence 
of  his  knights,  he  would  plight  his  word  to  keep  this 
covenant.  And  the  King  plighted  unto  him  his  word 
that  he  would  hold  to  the  covenant,  and  right  glad 
was  he  that  he  could  thus  escape. 

And  he  returned  to  his  palace,  and  he  caused  his 
knights  and  his  retinue  to  assemble,  and  he  related 
unto  them,  word  for  word,  how  that  Sir  Fulk  had 
deceived  him,  and  he  said  that  under  constraint  had 
he  made  the  oath,  for  the  which  he  would  not  hold 
to  it,  and  he  commanded  that  all  should  arm  them  in 
haste  to  take  those  felons  in  the  park.  Then  Sir 
James  de  Normandy,  who  was  cousin  to  the  King, 

prayed  that  he  might  have  the  avant-guard,  and  he 
said  that  "  the  English — at  least  all  those  of  rank — 
are  cousins  to  Sir  Fulk,  and  because  of  this  they  are 
traitors  to  the  King,  and  will  not  take  these  felons." 
Then  said  Randolf,  Earl  of  Chester,  "  By  my  faith 
Sir  Knight,  saving  the  honour  of  our  lord  the  King 
and  not  yours,  in  that  you  lie."  And  he  would  have 
struck  him  with  his  fist  if  that  the  earl-marshal  had 
not  been  there,  and  he  said  that  they  are  not,  nor  ever 
were,  traitors  to  the  King  or  to  his  people,  but  truly 
had  he  said  that  all  men  of  rank,  and  the  King  himself, 
were  cousins  to  Sir  Fulk.  Then  said  the  earl-marshal, 
"  Let  us  go  pursue  Sir  Fulk.  Then  will  the  King  see 
who  will  falter  because  of  cousinship."  And  Sir 
James  de  Normandy  and  his  fifteen  companion  knights 
armed  them  very  richly,  and  all  in  white  armour,  and 
they  were  all  nobly  mounted  on  white  steeds.  And 
he  hasted  forward  with  his  company  to  secure  the 

And  John  de  Rampaigne  had  espied  all  their  doings, 
and  he  told  them  unto  Sir  Fulk,  who  could  in  nowise 
escape  save  by  battle.  And  Sir  Fulk  and  his  com- 
panions armed  them  very  richly,  and  they  hurtled 
themselves  boldly  against  Sir  James,  and  they  de- 
fended themselves  valiantly,  and  they  slew  all  his 

companions  save  four  who  were  wounded  nigh  unto 
death.  And  Sir  James  was  taken.  And  anon  Sir  Fulk 
and  his  companions  armed  themselves  with  the  harness 
of  ~Sir  James  and  of  the  other  Normans,  and  they 
mounted  on  to  their  goodly  steeds,  the  which  were 
white,  for  their  own  steeds  were  tired  and  lean.  And 
they  armed  Sir  James  with  the  harness  of  Sir  Fulk, 
and  they  bound  his  mouth  so  that  he  could  not  speak, 
and  put  his  helm  on  his  head,  and  they  rode  towards 
the  King,  who,  when  he  saw  them,  knew  them  by 
their  harness,  and  thought  that  Sir  James  and  his 
companions  brought  Sir  Fulk. 

Then  Sir  Fulk  presented  Sir  James  to  the  King, 
and  said  that  he  was  Sir  Fulk.  And  when  they  saw 
this,  the  Earl  of  Chester  and  the  earl-marshal  were 
very  sorrowful.  And  the  King,  for  the  gift,  made 
command  to  him  that  he  should  kiss  him,  but 
Sir  Fulk  said  that  he  could  not  tarry  to  take  off  his 
helm,  for  that  he  must  needs  go  pursue  the  other 
Fitz-Warines.  And  the  King  descended  down  from 
off  his  goodly  steed,  and  he  commanded  him  to  mount 
on  to  it,  for  it  was  swift  to  pursue  his  enemies.  And 
Sir  Fulk  alighted,  and  he  mounted  on  to  the  steed  of 
the  King,  and  departed  to  his  companions,  and  they 
fled  a  good  six  leagues  from  there.  And  there  they 

disarmed  them  in  a  wood,  and  washed  their  wounds, 
and  they  bandaged  the  wound  of  William,  his  brother, 
who  was  grievously  wounded  by  one  of  the  Normans, 
and  they  held  him  as  dead,  for  the  which  they  all  made 
dole  without  measure. 

And  forthwith  the  King  gave  command  to  hang 
Sir  Fulk.  Then  came  Emery  de  Pin,  a  Gascon,  who 
was  kinsman  to  Sir  James,  and  he  said  that  he  would 
hang  him.  And  he  took  him,  and  led  him  a  short 
way  thence,  and  caused  his  helm  to  be  taken  off. 
And  anon  he  saw  that  it  was  James,  and  he  unbound 
his  mouth.  And  he  told  unto  him  all  that  had 
happened  betwixt  him  and  Sir  Fulk.  And  Emery 
came  forthwith  to  the  King,  and  brought  Sir  James 
who  related  unto  him  how  Sir  Fulk  had  served  him. 
And  when  the  King  perceived  that  he  was  thus  de- 
ceived, he  was  sore  vexed,  and  he  swore  a  great  oath 
that  never  would  he  take  off  his  hauberk  until  that  he 
had  taken  these  traitors.  But  of  this  Sir  Fulk  knew 

And  the  King  and  his  earls  and  his  barons  pursued 
them  by  the  hoofmarks  of  their  horses  until  that  they 
were  come  well-nigh  unto  the  wood  where  Fulk  was. 
And  when  Fulk  perceived  them,  he  wept  and  lamented 
for  William,  his  brother,  and  he  held  himself  lost  for 

ever.  And  William  prayed  of  them  that  they  would 
cut  off  his  head,  and  carry  it  with  them,  so  that  the 
King,  when  he  found  his  body,  might  not  know  who 
he  was.  And  Fulk  said  that  this  he  would  not  do  for 
the  world,  and  with  tears  he  prayed  very  pitifully  that 
God,  in  His  mercy,  would  aid  them,  and  such  grief 
was  there  among  them,  that  never  was  greater  seen. 
And  Randolf,  Earl  of  Chester,  led  the  way,  and 
when  he  perceived  Sir  Fulk,  he  gave  command  to  his 
company  to  halt,  and  he  went  alone  to  Sir  Fulk,  and 
besought  him,  for  the  love  of  God,  that  he  would  yield 
him  to  the  King,  and  he  would  answer  for  him  for 
life  and  limb,  and  that  he  should  be  wholly  reconciled 
to  the  King.  And  Fulk  made  answer  that  this  he 
would  not  do  for  all  the  wealth  of  the  world.  "  But, 
Sir  Cousin,  for  the  love  of  God  I  pray  you  for  my 
brother,  who  lies  there,  that,  when  he  is  dead,  you 
will  cause  his  body  to  be  buried,  so  that  wild  beasts 
may  not  devour  it,  and  ours  likewise  when  we  are 
dead.  And  return  you  to  your  lord,  the  King,  and 
do  your  duty  by  him  without  guile,  and  without 
regard  to  us  who  are  of  your  blood.  And  now  here 
will  we  receive  the  fate  which  is  ordained  for  us." 
And  the  earl,  all  weeping,  returned  to  his  company. 
And  Fulk  remained,  and  he  wept  very  tenderly  with 


compassion  for  his  brother,  whom  he  must  needs 
leave  there,  and  he  prayed  God  that  He  would  succour 
and  aid  them. 

And  the  earl  commanded  his  retinue  and  his  com- 
pany to  the  assault,  and  they  struck  at  them  with 
vigour.  And  the  earl  himself  attacked  Sir  Fulk,  but 
at  last  the  earl  lost  his  horse,  and  his  company  were 
in  great  part  slain.  And  Sir  Fulk  and  his  brothers 
defended  themselves  valiantly.  And  whilst  that 
Fulk  defended  himself,  Sir  Berard  de  Blois  came  behind 
him.  and  struck  him  with  his  sword  on  his  side,  and  he 
thought  to  have  slain  him.  Then  Fulk  turned  round 
and  struck  him  back  on  the  left  shoulder  with  both  his 
hands,  and  he  cut  through  his  heart  and  his  lungs, 
and  he  fell  dead  from  his  steed.  And  so  much  did 
Fulk  bleed,  that  he  swooned  on  the  neck  of  his  steed, 
and  his  sword  fell  from  his  hand.  Then  was  there 
wondrous  sorrow  amongst  his  brothers.  And  John, 
his  brother,  sprang  up  behind  Fulk  on  his  steed,  and 
held  him  up  so  that  he  might  not  fall,  and  they  took 
to  flight,  for  no  strength  had  they  to  remain.  And 
the  King  and  his  retinue  pursued  them,  but  take  them 
they  could  not.  And  all  the  night  they  wandered 
thus,  till  on  the  morrow  they  came  to  the  sea  to  Mador 
the  mariner.  And  then  Fulk  revived,  and  he  asked 

where  he  was,  and  in  whose  hands.  And  his  brothers 
comforted  him  as  best  they  could,  and  they  laid  him 
in  the  ship  in  a  very  fair  bed,  and  John  de  Rampaigne 
dressed  his  wounds. 

And  the  Earl  of  Chester  had  suffered  great  loss  of 
his  men,  and  hard  by  he  saw  William  Fitz-Warine 
well-nigh  dead,  and  he  took  him,  and  sent  him  to  an 
abbey  to  be  cared  for.  And  at  last  he  was  discovered 
there,  and  the  King  caused  him  to  be  brought  in  a 
litter  before  him  to  Windsor,  and  made  him  to  be 
cast  into  a  deep  prison,  and  he  was  much  an  angered 
with  the  Earl  of  Chester  for  that  he  had  hidden  him. 
And  the  King  said,  "  Fulk  is  wounded  unto  death,  and 
this  one  I  have  now  here.  The  others  I  shall  take 
easily,  wherever  they  may  be.  Certes,  I  am  sore 
vexed  at  the  pride  of  Fulk,  for  if  that  he  had  not  been 
proud,  he  would  have  been  still  living.  And  as  long 
as  he  was  alive,  no  such  knight  was  there  in  all  the 
world,  wherefore  great  loss  is  it  to  lose  such  a  knight." 

And  in  the  sea,  nigh  unto  Spain,  is  an  isle,  all  com- 
passed about  with  high  rocks,  and  there  is  but  one 
entrance,  the  which  is  called  Beteloye,  half  a  league 
long,  and  as  much  broad,  and  neither  man  nor  beast 
dwell  there.  And  on  the  sixth  day  they  came  to 
this  isle. 


Then  Fulk  began  to  sleep,  for  no  sleep  had  he  had 
for  six  days.  And  his  brothers  and  his  retinue  went 
ashore,  and  he  himself  all  alone  slept  in  the  ship,  the 
which  was  fastened  to  a  rock.  And  ere  long  there 
came  a  mighty  wind,  the  which  broke  the  fastenings 
of  the  ship,  and  carried  the  ship  out  into  the  open 
sea.  And  when  that  Fulk  awoke,  and  saw  the  stars 
and  the  firmament,  he  called  to  his  brother  John  and 
to  his  other  companions,  but  no  one  answered  him,  and 
he  perceived  that  he  was  alone  upon  the  open  sea. 
Then  he  began  to  weep,  and  to  curse  his  fate,  the 
which  was  so  hard,  and  he  grieved  for  his  brothers. 
And  then  sleep  took  hold  of  him,  and  soon  his  ship 
came  to  the  land  of  Barbary,  at  the  city  of  Tunis. 
And  there,  at  that  time,  was  Messobryn,  the  King 
of  Barbary,  with  four  kings  and  six  admirals,  who  were 
all  Saracens.  And  the  King  was  leaning  on  a  tower 
over  against  the  sea,  and  he  saw  this  strange  galley 
the  which  had  arrived  at  his  land,  and  he  gave  com- 
mand to  two  men-at-arms  to  go  see  what  it  was. 
And  the  two  men  entered  the  ship,  and  they  found 
naught  save  the  knight,  who  was  still  asleep.  And 
one  of  them  struck  him  with  his  foot,  and  bade 
him  awaken.  And  the  knight  sprang  up  like  a  man 
affrighted,  and  he  struck  him  with  his  fist  so  that  he 

fell  overboard  into  the  sea,  and  the  other  took  to 
flight,  and  came  to  tell  unto  the  King  of  all  that  had 

And  the  King  commanded  an  hundred  knights  to 
go  seize  the  ship,  and  to  bring  the  knight  to  him. 
And  the  hundred  knights,  all  armed,  came  to  the  ship, 
and  assailed  it  on  all  sides.  And  Fulk  defended 
himself  courageously  against  all,  but  at  last  he  yielded 
him  on  condition  that  he  should  be  well  used.  And 
they  led  him  before  the  King,  and  he  commanded 
that  he  should  be  well  cared  for  in  a  chamber. 

And  Isorie,  the  sister  of  the  King,  used  ofttimes 
to  visit  and  to  comfort  him,  and  she  was  a  very  fair 
and  noble  damsel.  And  she  perceived  that  he  was 
wounded  in  the  side,  and  she  prayed  of  him  that  for 
love  he  would  tell  her  his  name,  and  of  what  country 
he  was,  and  in  what  manner  he  had  been  wounded. 
And  he  made  answer  to  her  that  he  was  named  Marin 
le  Perdu  of  France,  and  that  he  loved  tenderly  from 
his  heart  a  damsel,  the  daughter  of  an  earl  of  his 
country,  and  that  she  made  him  in  return  great 
semblance  of  love,  but  she  loved  another  more. 
"  And  it  happed  that  she  and  I  were  together  one 
day  in  much  delight,  and  she  held  me  very  fast  in 
her  embrace.  And  then  there  came  the  other  one 

whom  she  loved  more,  and  he  smote  me  with  his 
sword,  and  they  placed  me  in  a  galley  on  the  sea  for 
dead,  and  the  galley  brought  me  to  these  parts." 
"  Certes,"  said  Isorie,  "  this  damsel  was  scarce 
courteous."  And  Isorie  took  her  harp,  the  which 
was  very  precious,  and  she  made  descants  and  notes 
for  to  solace  Fulk,  for  she  saw  that  he  was  fair,  and 
of  courtly  breeding. 

And  Fulk  asked  of  Isorie  the  fair  what  was 
the  matter  in  dispute  in  the  hall  before  the  King. 
"  Certes,"  said  she,  "  I  will  tell  you.  In  the  land  of 
Iberia  there  was  a  duke  who  was  called  the  Duke  of 
Carthage,  and  he  had  a  very  fair  daughter,  Ydoine  of 
Carthage.  And  during  the  lifetime  of  her  father  she 
dwelt  in  his  castle  of  Carthage.  And  at  length  there 
came  a  dragon  the  which  seized  her,  and  carried  her  to 
a  high  mountain  in  the  sea,  and  there  he  kept  her  for 
the  space  of  more  than  seven  years,  until  that  a  knight 
of  England,  who  was  called  Fulk  Fitz-Warine  de  Metz, 
came  to  that  mountain  and  slew  the  dragon,  and 
restored  her  to  her  father.  And  presently  the  duke 
died,  and  she  held  all  the  duchy.  And  the  King,  my 
brother,  sent  messengers  unto  her  that  he  would  take 
her  to  wife ;  but  she  denied  him,  and  for  the  shame 
which  the  King  had,  he  caused  a  great  multitude  to 

assemble,  and  he  laid  waste  her  cities,  and  demolished 
her  castles.  And  the  damsel  fled  thence  into  a  strange 
country  for  to  seek  help,  and  now  is  she  come  again 
with  people  without  number,  and  is  about  to  make 
fierce  war  upon  the  King,  and  thus  is  she  ready  to  do 
battle  against  a  host,  or  with  knight  against  knight, 
in  such  manner  that  if  her  people  be  vanquished,  she 
will  go  again  into  her  own  country,  and  if  ours  be 
overcome,  then  shall  the  King,  my  brother,  wholly 
make  good  the  damage.  And  touching  this,  there 
came  to-day  into  the  hall  proud  messengers,  and  may 
it  please  the  god  Mahoun  that  you  may  be  such  an 
one  that  you  will  be  bold  to  do  battle  for  the  King, 
my  brother,  for  great  honour  would  befall  you." 
"  Certes,  my  lady,  much  am  I  beholden  to  my  lord 
the  King,  and  above  all  to  you,  but  never  will  I  do 
battle  for  Saracen  against  Christian,  even  though  I 
should  lose  my  life.  But  if  that  the  King  will  abandon 
his  faith,  and  will  become  a  Christian,  and  be  baptized, 
then  will  I  do  battle,  and  will  save  his  lands  and  his 
people,  and  will  win  for  him  the  damsel  of  whom  you 
have  spoken."  And  Isorie  went  and  told  unto  Mes- 
sobryn,  her  brother,  the  King  of  Barbary,  all  that 
Fulk,  who  had  called  himself  Marin  le  Perdu  of 
France,  had  promised  unto  her.  And  the  King 

forthwith  granted  whatever  he  might  counsel,  if  that 
thus  he  could  achieve  his  desire. 

And  the  day  of  battle  was  ordained,  and  the  King 
armed  Sir  Fulk  very  richly,  and  Isorie  herself  served 
him  right  willingly.  And  the  King,  and  his  Bar- 
barines,  and  his  admirals,  and  all  his  other  men,  were 
well  armed,  and  much  folk  with  them.  And  they 
sent  forward  his  knight  Fulk,  who  was  to  do  battle, 
and  the  duchess  sent  forward  her  knight.  And  the 
knights,  who  were  without  fear,  goaded  their  horses 
with  their  spurs,  and  they  struck  each  other  with  their 
lances  in  such  manner  that  the  pieces  flew  about  the 
field.  And  then  they  drew  their  swords,  and  boldly 
did  they  encounter  each  other.  And  Fulk  struck  the 
horse  of  his  companion  in  such  wise  that  he  felled 
it  dead,  but  he  had  minded  to  strike  the  knight. 
And  when  the  knight  was  on  the  ground,  then  said  he, 
"  You  wicked  pagan,  you  wicked  Saracen  of  ill  faith, 
may  God  in  Heaven  curse  you  !  Wherefore  have 
you  slain  my  horse  ?  "  And  Fulk  dismounted  afoot, 
and  the  day  long  they  combated  together  with  all 
their  might.  And  when  it  was  nigh  even,  the  knight 
said  to  Fulk,  "  Sir  Pagan,  you  are  very  strong  and 
vigorous.  Tell  me  for  love  where  you  were  born  ?  " 
"  If  it  please  you  to  know  my  nation,  I  will  not  tell 

it  unto  you  if  that  you  tell  me  not  first  your  own, 
and  then  will  I  make  it  known  unto  you."  Then  the 
knight  told  unto  him  how  that  he  was  a  Christian, 
born  in  England,  the  son  of  Guarin  de  Metz,  and  that 
he  was  called  Philip  the  Red.  And  word  by  word 
he  related  in  order  all  his  life,  and  that  of  his  brothers, 
and  how  that  the  duchess  came  in  a  ship  to  the  isle  of 
Beteloye,  and  received  them  into  the  ship,  and  saved 
them,  for  there  had  they  been  for  the  space  of  half  a 
year  and  more,  and  had  eaten  their  horses  from  hunger. 
"  And  when  the  countess  saw  us,  forthwith  she  knew 
us,  and  found  for  us  all  that  was  needful  to  us,  and 
she  told  unto  us  how  that  she  came  from  England,  and 
had  sought  us  there  for  to  wage  war  for  her.  And  a 
very  hard  life  have  we  led." 

Then  said  Fulk,  "Fair  brother  Philip  the  Red, 
know  you  me  not  ?  I  am  Fulk,  your  brother." 
"  Nay,  certes,  Sir  Saracen,  that  are  you  not,  but  now 
you  would  deceive  me.  By  God,  you  shall  not !  " 
Then  Fulk  told  him  of  a  true  mark,  by  the  which  he 
knew  him.  And  then  they  made  great  rejoicing,  and 
put  off  the  combat  until  the  morrow.  And  Philip 
told  unto  the  duchess  how  that  it  was  Fulk,  his 
brother,  with  whom  he  had  fought,  and  by  the  counsel 
of  Fulk  and  Philip  and  his  other  brothers,  the  King, 

and  all  his  household,  were  baptized,  and  the  King 
wedded  the  duchess  with  great  honour. 

And  Fulk  and  his  brothers  and  his  household 
sojourned  awhile  with  the  King,  and  then, -they 
equipped  them  very  richly  to  go  to  England.  And 
the  King  gave  unto  them  gold,  and  silver,  and  horses, 
and  arms,  and  all  the  riches  that  they  would  have  or 
desire,  and  they  filled  their  ship  with  so  great  wealth 
that  it  was  marvellous.  And  when  that  they  were 
come  privily  into  England,  Fulk  commanded  that 
John  de  Rampaigne  should  dissemble  him  as  a  mer- 
chant, and  should  make  inquiry  where  King  John 
was,  and  if  William,  his  brother,  was  alive  or  not. 
And  John  dressed  himself  very  richly  in  the  guise  of 
a  merchant,  and  came  to  London.  And  he  lodged 
him  in  the  house  of  the  mayor,  and  caused  himself  to 
be  served  very  sumptuously,  and  he  fraternized  with 
the  mayor  and  all  his  household,  and  gave  unto  them 
liberal  gifts,  and  he  prayed  of  the  mayor  that  he  would 
make  him  known  unto  the  King,  to  the  end  that  he 
might  bring  his  ship  to  his  land.  And  that  which 
he  spake  was  corrupt  Latin,  but  the  mayor  under- 
stood him  well.  And  the  mayor  led  him  before  the 
King  at  Westminster,  and  the  merchant  saluted  him 
very  courteously  in  his  language.  And  the  King 

understood  him  well,  and  asked  of  him  who  he  was, 
and  whence  he  came.  "  Sire,"  said  he,  "  I  am  a 
merchant  of  Greece,  and  I  have  been  in  Babylon  and 
Alexandria  and  India  the  Greater,  and  I  have  a  ship 
laden  with  condiments,  and  rich  cloth,  and  pearls, 
and  horses,  and  other  riches,  the  which  might  be  of 
great  worth  unto  this  kingdom."  "  I  would,"  said 
the  King,  "  that  you  and  yours  come  ashore  in  my 
land,  and  I  will  be  your  surety."  And  they  were 
bidden  to  stay  and  eat.  And  the  mayor  and  the 
merchant  ate  together  before  the  King.  And  ere  long 
there  came  two  sergeants-at-mace,  and  they  led  into 
the  hall  a  knight,  tall,  and  stout,  and  with  a  long 
black  beard,  and  he  was  meanly  clad,  and  they  made 
him  to  be  seated  in  the  midst  of  the  hall,  and  gave 
him  to  eat.  And  the  merchant  asked  of  the  mayor 
who  he  was,  and  he  told  unto  him  that  he  was  a  knight 
called  Sir  William  Fitz-Warine,  and  he  related  unto 
him  wholly  all  the  affair  of  him  and  of  his  brothers. 
And  when  that  he  heard  him  named,  then  was  he 
very  rejoiced  that  he  saw  him  alive,  but  he  was  sore 
grieved  in  his  heart  that  he  saw  him  so  ill  at  ease. 
And  the  merchant,  as  soon  as  he  could,  hasted  to 
Sir  Fulk,  and  related  unto  him  all  his  doings,  and  he 
caused  the  ship  to  be  brought  as  nigh  unto  the  city 

as  was  possible.  And  on  the  morrow  the  merchant 
took  a  white  palfrey,  (none  other  so  fair  was  there  in 
all  the  kingdom,)  and  he  presented  it  unto  King  John, 
who  received  it  right  gladly  because  of  its  beauty. 
And  the  merchant  bestowed  such  largess,  that  he 
made  himself  to  be  loved  of  all,  and  he  could  do  in 
the  Court  whatsoever  it  pleased  him.  And  on  a  day 
he  took  his  companions,  and  they  armed  them  well, 
and  then  they  put  on  the  gowns  wont  to  be  used  by 
mariners,  and  they  came  to  Westminster  to  the  Court, 
and  there  were  they  received  nobly,  and  they  saw 
William  Fitz-Warine  led  by  the  warders  to  the  prison. 
And  the  merchant  and  his  companions,  despite  the 
warders,  took  him  by  force,  and  they  carried  him  to 
their  boat,  the  which  was  afloat  nigh  unto  the  palace, 
and  they  all  got  in.  And  the  warders  raised  a  hue 
and  cry,  and  pursued  them.  And  the  merchants 
were  well  armed,  and  they  defended  themselves 
bravely,  and  they  escaped  to  their  galley,  and  sailed 
towards  the  high  sea.  And  when  Fulk  saw  William, 
his  brother,  and  John  de  Rampaigne,  who  was  the 
merchant,  it  needs  not  to  ask  if  he  was  glad.  And 
they  embraced  one  another,  and  each  told  unto  the 
other  of  his  adventures  and  his  misfortunes.  And 
when  that  the  King  heard  that  he  had  been 

deceived  of  the  merchant,  he  held  himself  very 
badly  used. 

And  Fulk  and  his  companions  arrived  in  Brittany, 
and  there  dwelt  they  half  a  year  and  more  with  their 
kinsfolk  and  their  cousins.  And  at  length  he  deter- 
mined that  naught  should  hinder  him  from  going 
into  England.  And  when  that  he  was  come  into 
England,  into  the  New  Forest,  the  which  aforetime 
he  frequented,  he  met  the  King,  who  was  pursuing 
a  wild  boar.  And  Fulk  and  his  comrades  seized  him, 
and  six  knights  with  him,  and  they  carried  him  to 
their  galley.  And  the  King  and  all  his  retinue  were 
sore  afraid.  And  there  was  much  parley  ;  but  at 
length  the  King  put  aside  all  his  anger,  and  he  re- 
stored unto  them  all  their  heritage,  and  promised 
unto  them  in  good  faith  that  he  would  make  their 
reconciliation  to  be  proclaimed  throughout  England, 
and  for  the  doing  of  this  he  left  his  six  knights  with 
them  as  hostages,  until  that  the  reconciliation  was 

And  the  King  went  thence  to  Westminster,  and  he 
called  together  the  earls  and  the  barons  and  the  clergy, 
and  he  told  unto  them  openly  how  that  he  had  freely 
granted  his  goodwill  to  Fulk  Fitz-Warine  and  to  his 
brothers  and  to  all  his  adherents,  and  he  commanded 

that  they  should  be  honourably  received  throughout 
the  realm,  and  he  granted  unto  them  wholly  all  their 
heritage.  And  when  that  Hubert,  the  archbishop, 
heard  this,  right  glad  was  he,  and  forthwith  he  sent 
letters  to  Fulk,  and  to  the  Earl  of  Gloucester,  and  to 
Randolf,  the  Earl  of  Chester,  and  to  Hugh,  the  earl- 
marshal,  that  without  delay  they  should  come  to 
him  at  Canterbury.  And  when  that  they  were  come, 
they  decreed  that  Fulk,  and  his  brothers,  should  sub- 
mit themselves  at  London  unto  the  King.  And 
Fulk,  and  his  brothers,  and  the  three  earls,  with  their 
followers,  apparelled  themselves  as  richly  as  they 
knew  how  and  were  able,  and  they  came  through 
London  with  great  pomp,  and  kneeled  before  the 
King  at  Westminster,  and  submitted  themselves  unto 
him.  And  the  King  received  them,  and  restored 
unto  them  all  that  was  theirs  in  England,  and  he 
commanded  them  to  remain  with  him.  And  this 
did  they  for  a  whole  month.  And  then  Fulk  took 
his  leave,  and  he  sojourned  with  the  earl-marshal. 
And  the  earl  made  over  unto  him  Ashdown,  and 
Wanting,  and  other  lands.  And  Fulk  and  his  brothers 
armed  them  as  it  pleased  them,  and  came  to  Abingdon, 
and  they  removed  thence  all  that  they  could  find 
to  sell,  and  caused  it  to  be  taken  and  carried  to  Wanting, 

and  there  he  established  a  fair  and  a  market  town,  the 
which  has  ever  since  then  been  held  there,  and  still  is. 
And  Fulk  took  leave  of  the  earl-marshal,  and  he 
went  thence  to  Earl  Randolf  of  Chester,  who  was 
making  ready  with  a  large  force  for  Ireland  to  defend 
his  rights  there.  And  when  that  they  were  arrived, 
they  saw  a  great  assemblage  of  their  enemies.  And 
the  earl  commanded  that  all  should  arm  them.  And 
the  earl  had  with  him  three  young  brothers,  who 
were  men  of  great  valour  and  strength,  and  they  were 
armed  and  well  mounted,  and  with  them  was  Fulk. 
And  at  length  they  saw  amongst  their  enemies  a 
hideous  giant,  who  was  well  armed  down  to  his  feet, 
and  was  hideous,  and  black,  and  horrible,  and  taller 
by  twelve  feet  than  any  other.  And  he  cried  out, 
"  Earl  of  Chester,  send  me  the  most  valiant  knight 
that  you  have  to  defend  your  rights."  And  when 
that  the  three  youths  heard  this,  they  encountered  him 
one  after  the  other,  and  forthwith  he  slew  them  with 
the  axe  which  he  carried.  And  at  last  Fulk  let  go  his 
steed,  and  would  have  struck  him  with  his  lance  but 
that  the  giant -turned  aside  slightly,  and  he  struck  at 
Fulk  so  that  he  well-nigh  slew  him.  And  Fulk  feared 
him  greatly,  and  he  watched  him  closely,  until  that 
he  ran  him  through  the  body  with  his  lance.  And  he 

fell  to  the  ground,  and  in  falling  he  struck  the  horse  of 
Fulk,  and  cut  off  two  of  its  hoofs.  And  Fulk  fell  to 
the  ground,  but  he  sprang  up  again,  and  he  drew  his 
sword,  and  cut  off  his  head.  And  he  carried  his  axe 
to  White  Town,  where  Fulk  had  caused  a  very  strong 
and  fair  castle  to  be  built  in  the  marsh.  And  thus  did 
the  earl  conquer  all  his  lands  and  castles  in  Ireland. 
And  when  that  he  had  sojourned  there  awhile,  and 
had  set  his  lands  in  order,  then  returned  he  into 

And  Fulk  came  to  White  Town,  and  there  he 
found  Maude,  his  wife,  and  his  children,  who  were 
right  glad  of  his  coming,  and  they  had  great  joy 
together.  Then  Fulk  caused  his  treasures  and  his 
goods  to  be  brought,  and  he  bestowed  much  lands 
and  horses  on  his  fighting-men  and  his  friends,  and 
he  maintained  his  lands  right  worthily. 

And  Fulk  bethought  him  that  greatly  had  he  sinned 
against  God  by  the  slaying  of  people,  and  by  other 
great  misdeeds,  and,  to  acquit  him  of  his  sins,  he 
founded  a  priory  in  honour  of  Our  Lady  the  Holy 
Mother  of  the  Order  of  Grandmont,  near  Alberbury, 
in  a  wood  on  the  river  Severn,  the  which  is  called  the 
New  Abbey.  And  not  long  after,  Dame  Maude  de 
Caus,  his  wife,  died,  and  she  was  interred  in  this 

priory.  And  a  good  while  after  that  this  lady  had  died, 
Fulk  wedded  a  very  noble  lady,  Dame  Clarice  de 
Auberville,  and  by  his  two  wives  he  begat  fair  and 
valiant  children.  And  when  that  Joan,  the  wife  of 
Lewis,  the  Prince  of  Wales,  and  who  was  the  daughter 
of  King  Henry  of  England,  was  dead,  because  of  the 
great  renown  for  prowess  and  for  goodness  that  Sir 
Fulk  had,  he  sent  to  him  for  his  daughter  Eve.  And 
he  gave  her  unto  him,  and  with  great  honour  and 
solemnity  were  they  wedded.  But  Lewis  lived  but 
a  year  and  a  half  after,  and  he  died,  and  was  buried 
at  Aberconway,  without  heir  begotten  of  Eve.  And 
afterward  was  she  wedded  to  the  lord  of  Oswestry, 
who  was  a  knight  very  adventurous,  courageous,  and 

And  on  a  night,  Fulk  and  Dame  Clarice,  his  wife, 
were  together  in  their  chamber.  And  the  lady  slept, 
but  Fulk  lay  awake,  and  he  bethought  him  of  his 
youth,  and  heartily  did  he  repent  him  of  his  sins. 
And  ere  long  he  saw  in  the  chamber  so  great  a  light 
that  he  marvelled,  and  he  wondered  within  himself 
what  it  could  be.  And  then  he  heard  a  voice  in  the 
air  as  it  were  of  thunder,  and  it  said,  "  Knight,  God 
has  granted  thee  thy  penance,  the  which  avails  more 
here  than  elsewhere."  And  at  these  words  the  lady 

awoke,  and  she  saw  the  great  light,  and,  from  fear, 
she  covered  her  face.  And  at  length  the  light  vanished. 
And  after  this  light  never  more  could  Fulk  see,  and 
he  was  blind  all  his  days. 

And  this  Fulk  was  very  hospitable  and  liberal,  and 
he  caused  the  highway  to  be  turned  through  the  hall 
of  his  manor  of  Alleston,  to  the  intent  that  no  stranger 
might  pass  that  way  without  meat  or  lodging,  or 
other  regard  or  goods  of  his.  And  Merlin  says : — 
"  In  Britain  the  Great  a  wolf  will  come  from  the 
White  Plain.  Twelve  sharp  teeth  will  he  have,  six 
below  and  six  above.  He  will  have  so  fierce  a  look, 
that  he  will  drive  the  leopard  from  out  the  White 
Plain,  such  great  strength  and  virtue  will  he  have. 
But  we  know  that  Merlin  said  this  of  Fulk  Fitz- 
Warine,  for  each  of  you  may  be  sure  that  in  the  time 
of  King  Arthur  that  was  called  the  White  Plain  which 
is  now  named  White  Town.  For  in  that  country 
was  the  chapel  of  St.  Augustine,  which  was  fair,  where 
Kahuz  the  son  of  Ywein  dreamt  that  he  stole  the 
candelabrum,  and  that  he  encountered  a  man  who 
wounded  him  with  a  knife,  and  bruised  him  in  his 
side.  And  he  cried  out  so  loud  as  he  slept,  that 
King  Arthur  heard  him,  and  awoke  from  sleep.  And 
when  Kahuz  was  awaked,  he  put  his  hand  to  his  side, 

and  there  he  tound  the  knife  by  the  which  he  had 
been  wounded.  Thus  says  the  Graal,  the  book  of 
the  holy  vessel.  There  recovered  King  Arthur  his 
goodness  and  his  valour,  when  he  had  quite  lost  his 
chivalry  and  his  virtue.  From  this  country  the  wolf 
issued,  as  says  the  wise  Merlin.  And  the  twelve  sharp 
teeth  we  have  recognized  from  his  shield.  He  bore  a 
shield  indented  as  the  arbiters  have  devised.  On  the 
shield  are  twelve  teeth  gules  and  argent.  By  the 
leopard  may  be  recognized  and  well  understood  King 
John  ;  for  he  bore  on  his  shield  leopards  of  beaten 

And  this  Fulk  remained  seven  years  blind,  and  he 
endured  his  penance  with  patience.  And  Dame 
Clarice  died,  and  was  buried  in  the  New  Abbey. 
And  after  her  death  Fulk  lived  but  a  year,  and  he 
died  at  White  Town.  And  with  great  honour  he 
was  interred  at  the  New  Abbey,  on  whose  soul  may 
God  have  mercy  !  And  the  body  lies  nigh  unto  the 
altar.  May  God  have  mercy  on  us  all,  living  and 
dead  !  Amen  ! 


Aberconway,  118. 

Alan,  son  of  Flaeu,  9. 

Alard,  xv. 

Alberbury,  xiv,  10,  34,  47,  48,  61, 

75.  "7- 

Alexandria,  112. 
Alleston,  40,  119. 
Anable,  58. 
Anjou,  xv,  66. 

Antiquities  of  Shropshire,  xi. 
Arthur,  King,  xiii,  32,  119,  120. 
Ashdown,  115. 
Auberville,    Clarice     de,     Fulk's 

second  wife,  118,  120. 
Audley,  Henry  de,  70,  71,  73. 
Augustine,  7. 
Aunflorreis  of  Orkney,  xix,  88. 

daughter  of,  86. 

Avignon,  Piers  d',  47. 

Aymon,  Quarte  fils,  xiii,  xv,  xvi. 

Babbing,  forest  of,  48. 
Babylon,  112. 
Bagot,  Castle,  86,  68. 
Balaham  Castle,  67,  69,  77. 
Baldwin,  Castle,  see  Montgomery, 

Barbary,    Messobryns,   King    of, 

105,  108. 

Belehealme,  Ernald  de,  2. 
Belehealme,  Robert  de,  2. 
Belehealme,  Roger  de,  2,  3. 
Beledyns,  the  Briton,  9. 
Bertolais,  xiv. 

Beteoyle,  104,  no. 
Blois,  Berard  de,  103. 
Bois,  Amis  du,  see  Fulk,  79. 
Bordeaux,  Huon  de,  xvi. 
Botiler,  Hubert  le,  Archbishop  of 

Bracy,  Audulf  de,  47,  54,  71,  74, 

76,  85,  91,  93,  94,  95- 
Bradene,  forest  of.  50. 
Bran,  Castle,  see  Old  March,  xiii, 

Bran,  King,  5. 

Bristol,  3,  10. 

Brittany,  12,  47,  88,  114. 

Brittany,  Geoffrey  Count  of,  41. 

Brittany,  John  Duke  of,  12. 

-  ten  sons  of,  12,  15. 

Bruce,  Godard  de,  18,  20. 

Bruce,  Robert,  xvii. 

Bruces,  the,  13. 

Bruere,  de  la,  Marion,  xix,  21,  25, 

28,  30,  31. 

Brugge,  Castle  of,  2,  3. 
Brutus,  4. 

Bruvile,  Piers  de,  58,  50,  60. 
Burgh,  5. 
Burgundy,  Duke  of,  13,  14. 

Candclou  de  Porkington,  16,  37. 

Canterbury,  53,  7?. 

Canterbury.    Archbishop   of,    ttt 

Botiler,   Hubert  le,  xix,  57,  76, 


Carreganant,  grange  o.,  76. 
Carthage,  90,  94. 
Carthage,  Duke  of,  90,  94,  107. 
Catalogue  of  Romances  in    the 

Department  cf  MSS.   in   the 

British  Museum,  x. 
Caus,  Maude  de,  Fulk's  first  wife, 

57,  75,  76,  "7; 
Charlemagne,  xiv,  xv. 

nephew  of,  xiv. 

Chariot,  xiv. 

Chester,  2,  3,  10,  39. 

Chester,   Randolf,   Earl    of,    xii, 

xvii,  99,  100,  102,  104,  115,  116. 
Chettle,  Henry,  xx. 
Chronicon  A  nglicanum,  ix. 
Clairfontaine,   Aaron  de,  son  of, 


Claris,  xvi. 

Coggeshail,  Radulph  de,  ix. 
Colchester,  Jordan  de,  54. 
Corbet,  Sir  Thomas,  71. 
Corineus,    from    whom    Cornwall 

has  still  its  name,  xiii,  4. 
Cornwall,  see  Corineus,  4. 
Corve,  river  of,  3. 
Cosham,  brothers,  54. 
County  Palatine,  2. 
Courthose,  Robert,  10. 
Cristal,  xvi. 

Dee,  waters  of,  TO. 

Denmark,  88. 

Descriptive  Catalogue  of  Materi- 
als relating  to  the  history  oj 
Great  Britain  and  Ireland  to 
the  end  of  the  reign  of  Henry 
VII.,  x. 

Dinorben,  69. 

Donvval,  father  of  King  Bran,  5. 

Dordon,  xv. 

Dover,  76,  77,  95. 

Droyndoun,  Jervard,  Prince  of 
Wales,  34. 

Dunbars,  the,  13. 

Dynan,  Castle  of,  xviii,  2,  3,  20, 
25>  26,  27,  28,  31,  32,  35,  36. 

Dynan,  Joce  de,  3,  16,  17,  20, 
22-28  (inclusive),  30,  32,  34,  35, 

36,  38,  39,  4i- 

Dynan,  see  Ludlow,  3,  17,  31,  35, 

Eleyne,  it. 
Kllesmere,  n,  34,  40. 
Emeline,  see  Vileine,  48. 
Eneas,  son  of  the  king  of  Scot- 
land, 13. 

Estrange,  Guy,  see  1'Estrange,  15. 
Estrat,  69. 

Eustace  the  Monk,  xvii. 
Eve,  Fulk's  daughter,  it8. 
Evvyas,  16,  26. 
Eyton,  W.,  x,  xi. 

Fitz-Aaron,  Morgan,  49. 

Fitz-Alan,  9,  u. 

Fitz-Candelou  de  Porkington,  16, 

37,  63,  64. 

Fitz-Roger,  Moris,  44,  45,  48,  49 
61,  62,  63,  65,  66. 

Fitz-Sampson,  53,  59,  61,  62. 

Fitz- Walter,  Robert,  xii. 

Fitzwarin,  Ivo,  xi. 

Fitz-Warine,  Alan,  Fulk's  brother, 
41,  42,  53,  71,  76,  85. 

Fitz-Warine,  John,  Fulk's  brother, 
41,  42,  50,  53,  76,  103. 

Fitz- Warine.Fulk, his  bringing  up, 
41;  his  quarrel  with  Prince  John, 
42  ;  skill  in  arms,  43 ;  his  estates 
given  to  Moris  Fitz-Roger,  44  ; 
king  refuses  him  redress,  45  ; 
renounces  homage  to  the  king, 
46 ;  defeats  knights  sent  to  cap- 
ture him,  46  ;  fights  with  Moris 
Fitz-Roger,  48 ;  king  sends  a 
hundred  knights  to  capture  him, 
49 ;  robs  ten  merchants,  51  ; 
price  put  upon  his  head,  52 ; 
fight  with  the  hundred  knights, 

54  ;  takes  refuge  in  an  abbey, 

55  ;  escapes  disguised  as  a  monk, 

56  ;  goes  to  Canterbury  with  his 


brother  William,  57;  marries 
Maude  de  Caus,  58;  punishes 
de  Bruvile,  60  ;  kills  Moris  Fitz- 
Roger,  64  ;  goes  to  Prince  Lewis, 
64  ;  reconciles  Prince  Lewis  and 
Gwenwynwyn,  66  ;  gives  battle 
to  King  John  at  the  Ford  of 
Gymele,  68;  Prince  Lewis  re- 
stores White  Town  to  him,  69  ; 
Lestrange  and  Audley  lead  an 
army  against  him,  70;  battle  at 
the  pass  of  Mudle,  70  ;  king 
makes  overtures  to  Prince  Lewis 
to  surrender  Fulk,  76  ;  sends  his 
wife  to  Canterbury,  and  flies  to 
France,  77  ;  goes  to  Paris,  77  ; 
jousts  with  de  Montbener,  78  ; 
ives  himself  out  to  be  Amis  du 
ois,  79  ;  his  identity  discovered, 
So  ;  embarks  on  Madpr's  ship, 
83  ;  lands  on  an  island,  inhabited 
by  villains,  84  ;  rescues  seven 
imprisoned  damsels,  87  ;  and 
takes  them  back  to  Castle  Bagot, 
88  ;  kills  a  horned  serpent  in 
Scandinavia,  89  ;  comes  to  Car- 
thage, 90  ;  rescues  the  Duke's 
daughter  from  the  dragon,  92  ; 
returns  to  England,  95  ;  dis- 
guised as  a  charcoal-burner 
takes  the  king  prisoner,  98  ;  re- 
leases the  king,  who  promises  to 
restore  his  lands,  98  ;  takes 
James  de  Normandy  prisoner, 
100  ;  and  sends  him  disguised 
as  himself  to  the  king,  101  ; 
wounded  by  de  Bois,  103  ;  is 
taken  to  Mador's  ship  to  re- 
cover, 104  ;  adrift  alone,  is 
carried  to  Barbary,  105  ;  and 
nursed  by  Isorie,  the  kind's 
sister,  106  ;  gives  himself  out  to 
be  Marin  le  Perdu,  106  ;  as 
Messobryn's  champion  fights 
his  brother  Philip,  109  ;  returns 
to  England,  in  ;  rescues  his 
brother  William,  113  ;  takes  the 

king  prisoner,  114;  but  releases 
him  on  condition  that  his  lands 
are  restored,  114  ;  he  and  his  bro- 
thers are  reconciled  with  the 
king,  115;  joins  the  Earl  of  Ches- 
ter in  his  expedition  to  Ireland, 
116  ;  slays  a  giant,  117  ;  founds 
a  priory  near  Alberbury,  117; 
joins  his  wife  and  children,  117  ; 
death  of  his  wife,  117  ;  marries 
Clarice  de  Auberville,  118;  is 
struck  blind  in  the  night,  119; 
dies,  1 20. 

Fitz-Warine,  Philip,  Fulk's  brother, 
xi,  41,  42,  53,  71,  76,  85. 

Fitz-Warine,  William,  Fulk's 
brother,  xi,  41,  42,  53,  76,  85, 
IOT,  102,  104,  in,  112,  113. 

Flaeu,  9. 

France,  xix,  108. 

France,  Gerard  de,  47. 

France,  King  of,  40. 

Fulk  I.,  grandfather  of  Fulk 
Fitz-Warine,  xi. 

Fulk  II.,  see  Fulk  le  Bnm,  xi. 

Fulk  III. ,ste  Fitz-Warine,  Fulk.xi. 

Fulk  IV.,  son  of  Fulk  Fiu-Warine, 

Fulk  le  Brun,  father  of  Fulk,  16, 
19,  20,  21,  24,  26,  32-41  (inclu- 
sive), 43. 

Fulk,  son  of  Fulk  and  Maude  de 
Caus,  see  Fulk  IV.,  75. 

Galloway,  King  of,  13. 
Garin  le  Loherain,  xiiu 
Geoffrey,  Count  of  Brittany,  41. 
Geomagog,  xiii,  xix,  4,  6,  7,  9. 
Gloucester,  37,  39. 
Gloucester,  Earl  of,  115. 
Godebrand,  17. 
Gothland,  88. 
Graal,  the,  xiii,  ixx 
Graudmont,  Order  of,  117. 
Great  March,  5. 
Greece,  112. 
Guich.ird,  xv. 

Gwenwynwyn,      son     of     Owen 

Keveyloc,  65,  66,  67,  68. 
Gwynned.Owen,  Prince  of  Wales,  i. 
Gymele,  Ford  of,  67. 

Hardy,  Thomas  Duffus,  ix,  x. 

Harold,  King,  i. 

Hartland,  25,  26. 

Hawyse,  daughter  of  Fulk,  and 

Maude  de  Caus,  see  Wem,  Lady 

of,  75, 
Hawyse,  Fulk's  mother,  xi,  xiv, 

16,  19,  24,  26   34,  38,  41,  47. 
Henry,  son  of  Henry  the  becond, 


Henry  the  First,  3,  ip. 
Henry  the  Second,  xiv,  37,  38,  39, 

41,  42,  44,  64. 
Hereford,  24,  40. 
Hereward,  xvii. 
Hdricault,  C.  d',  ix. 
History  of  Ludlow,  x. 
Hodnet,   Baldwin  de,  42,  46,  47, 

54,  76,  77,  85- 
Holy  Land,  the,  43. 
Huggeford,  48,  56,  75. 
Huggeford,  Walter  de,  49. 
Hugh,  earl-marshal,  115. 

Iberia,  90,  107. 
Iberia,  king  of,  90. 
India,  the  greater,  112. 
reland,  xv,  23,  58,  66,  88,  89,  116. 
Isorie,  xix,  106,  107,  109. 

Jervard,  son  of  Owen,  Prince  -of 

Wales,  15,  35,  36,  39,  40. 
Joan,  wife  of  Henry  de  Pembridge, 

Joan,  wife  of  Prince  Lewis,  40,  64, 

66,  76,  1 1 8. 
John,  Duke  of  Brittany,  sons  of, 

John,  King,  his  quarrel  with  Fulk, 

43  ;  is  crowned,  42  ;  gives  Fitz- 

Roger  White  Town,  44  ;  refuses 

Fulk  redress,  45;  sends  a  hundred 
knights  to  capture  Fulk,  46 ; 
confiscates  all  Fulk's  estates,  47  ; 
learns  of  Fulk's  return  to 
England,  49  ;  puts  a  price  on 
Fulk's  head,  52  ;  raises  an  army 
against  Fulk  and  Gwenwynwyn, 
67  ;  is  defeated  at  the  Ford  of 
Gymele,  68  ;  sends  de  Audley 
with  an  army  to  help  Lestrange 
against  Fulk,  70 ;  his  interview 
with  de  Rampaigne  ,71  ;  his 
affection  for  Maude  de  Caus,  75 ; 
taken  prisoner  by  Fulk  in 
Windsor  Forest,  97  ;  is  released 
on  promising  to  restore  Fulk 
his  lands,  98  ;  takes  an  army  in 
pursuit  of  Fulk,  101 ;  defeats  and 
wounds  Fulk,  103  ;  interviews 
de  Rampaigne  at  Westminster. 
in  ;  taken  prisoner  by  Fulk  in 
the  New  Forest,  114  ;  released 
on  promising  to  restore  Fulk 
his  lands,  114;  reconciled  with 
Fulk,  115. 

Kahuz,  son  of  Ywein,  119. 
Kent,  weald  of,  52. 
Keveyloc,  Owen,  37,  65. 
Key,  see  Keyenham,  32. 

castle  of,  32,  35. 

Keyenham,  see  Key,  32. 
Keyroc,  n. 
Knokyn,  69. 

Lackland,  John,  xv,  xix. 
Lacy,  Walter  de,  16,   17,  20,  21, 
25,  26,  27,  28,  31,  33,   34,  36,  38, 

39.  41- 

Lambourne,  39. 
Landri,  xiv. 
Lannerth,  65. 
Leland,  ix. 

L' Estrange,  see  Estrange,  15. 
Lestrange,  John,  69,  71. 
Lewis,  son  of  Jervard,  Prince  of 

Wales,  40,  64,  65,  66,  76,  118. 


L'Histoire     Litteraire     de     la 

France,  ix. 

London,  i,  10,  40,  in,  115. 
Lorraine,  9. 

Ludlow,  see  Dynan,  3,  41. 
Lys,  Arnald  de,  xviii,  20,  21,  25, 

26,  27,  28,  29,  30. 

Mador,  xix,  81,  82,  83,  88,  90,  91, 

94,  95,  103. 

Maclor,  11,  34,  40,  41. 
Magdalene,  22. 
Mahoun,  the  god,  108. 
Malfee,  Girard  de,  56. 
Malyeysin,  John,  54. 
Marin  le  Perdu,  see  Fitz-Warine, 

Fulk,  106,  108. 
Marquis,  Amis  de,  47. 
Matilda,  wife  of  Fulk  III.,  xi. 
Melette,  wife  of  Guarin  de  Metz, 

n,  12,  14,  15,  24,  34,  38. 
Meredus,  son  of  Beledyns,  9. 
Merlin,  xiii,  119,  120. 
Messobryn,  king  of  Barbary,  xix, 

105,  108. 

Metheyn,  castle  of,  65. 
Metz,  9. 
Metz,   Guarin  de,  12,  13,  14,  15, 

24,  25,  26,  32,  33,  34,  38,  41,  48. 
Meunc,  Prince,  xi. 
Michel,  Francisque,  ix. 
Mochnant,  65. 
Moland,  L.,  ix. 

Montaigne,  de  la,  Guy,  sons  of,  48. 
Montauban,  Renaud  de,  xiii,'xiv, 


Montbener,  Druz  de,  78. 
Montgomery,  see  Baldwin,  44. 
Morlas,  land  of,  10. 
Mortimer  Castle,  23. 
Mortimers,  the,  23. 
Mountferrant,  Gilbert  de,  54. 
Mount  Gilbert,  2. 
Mudle,  pass  of,  70. 
Munday,  Anthony,  xx. 
Murray,  count  of,  13. 

Nauhendon,  n. 
Nesse.passof,  63. 
New  Abbey,  117,  iso. 
New  Forest,  114. 
Normandy,  xv,  10,  66. 
Normandy,  James  dc,  98,  99,  100, 


Norway,  88. 

Nottingham,  sheriff  of,  xviii. 
Nowelle  sfran^oises  en  Prose  du 

Ogier,  xiii. 

Old  March,  see  Bran  Castle,  4. 
Orkney,  xix,  86,  88. 
Osewaldestre,  see  Oswald,   Tree 

of,  9. 
Oswald,  Tree  of,  see  Osewaldestre 

Oswestry,  lord  of,  118. 

Paris,  77. 

Paris,  Paulin,  ix. 

Payn  Peverel,  xii,  xix,  5,  6,  7,  8, 

9,  10. 

Payn,  son  of  John,  41. 
Peak,  the,  10,  12. 
Pern  bridge,  Henry  de,  75. 
Pembroke,  2. 
Pendover,  21,  29,  32* 
Pentlyn,  67. 
Peverel,  castle  of,  12. 
Peverel,  river  of,  see  Pevereynes, 

river  of,  10. 
Peverel,  William,  10,  n,  12,  15, 

Pevereynes,  river  of,  tee  Peverel, 

river  of,  10. 
Philip,  lung  of  France,  xix,  77, 


Piers  Plowman,  xrii. 
Pin,  Emery  de,  101. 
Powis,  a,  34,  65- 
Powis,  Jonas  de,  35,  41. 
Powis,  Roger  de,  35,  40,  44. 
Preez,  Andrew  de,  *x 

Rampaigne,  John  de,  xix,  61,  62, 
72.  73,  761  78,  85,  94,  99,  104, 
in,  113. 

Randolf,  see  Chester,  Earl  of. 

Red  Castle,  71. 

Rhuddlan,  37. 

Richard  Coeur  de  Lion,  41,  42,  43. 

Robin  Hood,  xvii. 

Roland,  xiii. 

Rufus,  William,  3,  10. 

Russia,  Mount  of,  81. 

Ruton,  69. 

Saint  Brandan,  xvi. 

Scandinavia,  88. 

Scotland,  58. 

Scotland,  Eneas,  son  of  the  king 

of,  13. 

Severn,  river,  9,  74,  117. 
Sherwood,  forest  of,  xvii. 
Shrewsbury,  2,  40,  63,  67,  68,  74, 

Shropshire,  xii. 

Sibylle,  41. 

St.  Clement,  89. 

St.  Cyriac,  23. 

St.  Denis,  80. 

Stevenson,  Joseph,  ix. 

St.  Michael,  12. 

St.  Patrick,  89. 

St.  Peter,  abbey  of,  2. 

Teme,  river  of,  3,  18,  39. 
Trouvere,  the,  xvi. 
Troy,  4. 

Tunis,  105. 

Umfrevilles,  the,  13. 
Vileine,  see  Emeline,  48. 

Wales,  3,  40. 

Walter,  Theobald,  xi. 

Wanting,  115. 

Ward,  H.  L.  D.,  x,  xi,  xiii,  xx. 

Waybury,  10. 

Wem,     Lady    of,    see    Hawyse, 

Fulk's  daughter,  75. 
Westminster,  in,  113,  114,  115. 
Whitecliff,  xiii,  16,  28,  39. 
White  Plain,  the,  7,  8,  9,  10,  n, 

White-Tower,    see    Whittington, 

ii,  12,  14,  15. 
White  Town,  xiii,  12,  15,  40,  41, 

44,   45,  48,  61,  69,  71,  74,  n7, 

119,     120. 

Whitsand,  77. 

Whittington,    see    White-Tower, 

xi,  xii,  ii,  12,  14,  15. 
William  Rufus,  3,  10. 
William  the  Bastard,  i,  3. 
Winchester,  42,  47,  66. 
Windsor,  95. 
Worcester,  39. 
Wormeslow,  40. 
Wright,  Thomas,  ix,  x,  xvii,  xix. 

Ydoine  of  Carthage,  107. 
Ydromor,    son    of    the    king    of 
Galloway,  13. 






WKO!KG  SECT.  MAR  2  9 

PQ  Folk  Fitz-Warine  (Romance) 
U61  The  history  of  Fulk  Fitz- 

F9E5  Warine